The Social Insects Glossary
This glossary of entomological terms is based on Torre Bueno's Glossary, from which all terms relevant to ants, wasps, bees and termites where extracted.
abdominal appendages, in an embryo, pleuropodia, q.v. (Chapman); cerci, q.v., and external genitalia, q.v. (Chapman); in Collembola, ventral tube, retinaculum, and furcula, q.v. (Chapman); in Protura, paired appendages on each of the first 3 abdominal segments (Chapman); in Archaeognatha, Zygentoma, and Diplura, styli, eversible vesicles and cerci, q.v. (Chapman; von Kéler); in aquatic insects, abdominal gills, q.v. (Chapman); in larval Lepidoptera, Mecoptera, some Diptera, and sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta), prolegs, q.v. (Chapman); in larval Lepidoptera and Trichoptera, anal prolegs, q.v. (Chapman); in Zygentoma and Ephemeroptera, filum terminale, q.v. (Chapman; von Kéler); in larval Sphingidae, the terminal spine arising from the dorsum of abdominal segment X (Chapman); in nymphs of Zygoptera, caudal gills, q.v. (Chapman); in larval Coleoptera, urogomphi, q.v. (Chapman); in Aphididae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), cornicles, q.v. (Chapman).
acarine disease, a disease of adult bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) caused by the parasitic mite Acarapsis woodi (Acari), which infests the tracheae leading from the first pair of thoracic spiracles, causing the bees to lose their ability to fly and shortening the life of overwintering bees (Steinhaus and Martignoni).
accessory burrows, in ground-nesting species, blind-end false tunnels close beside the true nest burrow, e.g., in some Sphecidae (Hymenoptera) (Matthews and Matthews).
accessory gonopore, in adult insects, external opening of accessory genital or colleterial glands, primitively through paired papillae (labia, phalli) on abdominal segment IX, but united with gonadal gonopore in Hymenoptera and most other orders (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith); see collatoria.
accessory vein, secondarily developed vein in the wings of insects (T-B, after Comstock and Kellogg); an extra branch of a longitudinal vein (Borror et al.); in adult Symphyta (Hymenoptera), the most posterior vein in the anal area of the forewing, i.e., the third anal vein (A3) (Borror et al.; Riek, in CSIRO); see intercalary vein.
achrestogonomes, in a few species of Isoptera, alates which remain in the nest after swarming, loosing their wings, their gonads becoming atrophied, and playing no role in the maintenance of the colony (Grassé).
acidopore, in adult Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), pore of the modified hypopygium through which venomous secretions are squirted (Gauld and Bolton); see nozzle.
Aculeata, group of Hymenoptera, including the superfamilies Chrysidoidea, Tiphioidea, Formicoidea, Scolioidea, Vespoidea, Sphecoidea, and Apoidea, in which the ovipositor is modified into a sting (T-B; Wilson; Brown, in Parker); see Apocrita.
aculeate, pointed (T-B); armed with short sharp points (T-B); furnished with prickles (T-B); with aculeae (Borror et al.); armed with a sharp sting, as in the Hymenoptera (T-B); pertaining to the Aculeata (Wilson).
aculeus (pl., aculei), a prickle; a small sharp point (T-B); in Odonata, applied to combined anterior and median gonapophyses (Tuxen, after Tillyard); in adult Lepidoptera, microtrichium, q.v. (T-B); in Tipulidae (Diptera), a sharp spine jutting from beneath the margin of the eighth sternite (T-B; Tulloch); in Hymenoptera, stinglike ovipositor (Tuxen).
acus, in aculeate Hymenoptera, second gonapophyses, q.v. (Tuxen, after Eaton).
acute paralysis, a fatal disease of adult honey bees and of certain bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), caused by a virus, with infected bees not feeding and unable to fly, and walking around with trembling legs and wings (Steinhaus and Martignoni).
acutilingual, with a sharp pointed tongue or mouth structure, as in some bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) (T-B).
acutilingues, bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), with a short pointed tongue (T-B); see obtusilingues.
addled, term used by apiculturalists to describe eggs that fail to hatch, larvae that fail to pupate, and pupae and adult honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), that die without infection but rather the result of genetic anomalies (Steinhaus and Martignoni).
adecticous pupa, pupa with immobile mandibles, e.g., Diptera, Coleoptera, Siphonaptera, most most Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera (Chapman, after Hinton).
adult transport, the carrying or dragging of one adult social insect by a nestmate, usually during colony emigrations, being a very frequent and stereotyped form of behavior in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (Wilson).
adultoid reproductive, in the higher termites (Isoptera), a replacement reproductive that becomes a fully developed imago which does not disperse and instead becomes a functional reproductive (morphologically indistinguishable from the founding king or queen) within the natal nest, but rarely developing in colonies with a vigorous primary reproductive of the same sex (Noirot); see supplementary reproductive.
aedeagal apodeme, an apodeme of aedeagus (T-B); in Siphonaptera, plate arising from base of aedeagus and extending foward above endophallus, consisting of lamina media and laminae laterales (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in most Diptera, phallapodeme, q.v. (McAlpine); in Hymenoptera, apodeme of penis valve, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).
aedeagal foramen, in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), basal foramen, q.v., (Tuxen, after Michener); in Hymenoptera, basal opening into lumen of aedeagus when penis valves are fused or approximate dorsally and ventrally (Tuxen, after Michener).
aedeagal rods, in Hymenoptera, parameres, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).
aedeagus, in Diptera, intromittent organ as a whole (Tuxen, after authors), intromittent organ as far as fused with penis valves (Tuxen, after Abul Nasr), or distiphallus, q.v. (Tuxen, after authors, Snodgrass); in Chironomidae (Diptera), intromittent organ resulting from combination of gonapophyses IX and surrounding phalli (Saether); in Culicidae (Diptera), central body of phallosome or distal part of phallus (Harbach and Knight); in Siphonaptera, the external part of the phallosome including the end chamber that bears a large basal apodeme (Rothschild and Traub); in Hymenoptera, bilobate intromittent organ (Gauld and Bolton), penis and penis valves (Tuxen, after Beck), or entire genitalia (Tuxen, after Timberlake).
alar frenum, in adult Diptera, a small ligament dividing the supraalar cavity into an anterior and a posterior part (T-B, after Comstock); in adult Hymenoptera, a small ligament crossing the supraalar groove toward the base of the wing (T-B, after J. B. Smith).
alarm-defense system, defensive behavior which also functions as an alarm signaling device within the colony, including the use by certain ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), of chemical defensive secretions that double as alarm pheromones (Wilson).
alarm-recruitment system, a communication system that rallies nestmates to some particular place to aid in the defense of the colony, e.g., the odor trail system of lower termites (Isoptera), which is used to recruit colony members to the vicinity of intruders and breaches in the nest wall (Wilson).
alarm substance, in Formicidae, Vespidae, and Apoidea (Hymenoptera) and Isoptera, alarm pheromone, q.v. (CSIRO; Carpenter, pers. comm., after Jeanne).
alitrunk, in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), mesosoma, q.v., including the true thorax and (fused anteriorly to the thorax) the first abdominal segment (propodeum) (T-B; Wilson); see pterothorax.
allantoic acid, waste product of nitrogen metabolism occurring in the excreta of larval and adult Lepidoptera and larval Hymenoptera, being a product of allantoin acted upon by allantoinase.
alliogenesis, a form of development which includes an alternation of generations (q.v.) as in Cynipidae (Hymenoptera) (T-B).
alpha female, _-female, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), the normal when it coexists with the aberrant ß-female (T-B, after Imms); or an intermediate in structure between the teratogyne, q.v., and normal (Tulloch, after Wheeler).
alternation of generations, cyclical alternation between parthenogenetic and bisexual generations, e.g., Cynipidae (Hymenoptera) and Aphididae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) (T-B; Mayr; Chapman); see heterogeny.
amazons, obligatory slave-making ants of the genus Polyergus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (T-B; Borror et al.).
ambrosia, the fungus cultivated by wood-boring Scolytidae (Coleoptera), or, more specifically, the part of the fungus that grows out into the burrows and is eaten by the beetles (Wilson); in Apidae (Hymenoptera), bee bread, q.v. (T-B).
American foulbrood, a disease of larval honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) caused by Bacillus larvae White, with the infection occurring in the youngest larvae and with death occurring most frequently in the prepupal or pupal stage after the cells have been capped (Steinhaus and Martignoni).
ammochaeta, (pl., ammochaetae), a stiff type of long, curved, bristle occurring in bunches on the underside of the head in adult ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), used for cleaning the legs, etc. (T-B, after W. M. Wheeler; Brown, pers. comm.); in adult Masarinae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), elongate bristles on head, used to carry soil (Carpenter, pers. comm., after Snelling); see psammophore.
amoeba disease, a disease of adult honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) caused by Malpighamoeba mellificae, an amoeba that develops and ultimately encysts in the lumen of the Malpighian tubules (Steinhaus and Martignoni); a disease of grasshoppers in which an amoeba, Malemba locustae, infects primarily the Malpighian tubules (Steinhaus and Martignoni).
amyloidosis, a pathologic condition in mated queen honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), causing premature drone production, associated with the deposition of amyloid in the cytoplasm of the spermathecal epithelium of the affected queens (Steinhaus and Martignoni).
anal field, in Mastotermitidae (Isoptera), the numerous branched veins in the anal lobe of the hind wing (Emerson); in Orthoptera, the area on the tegmina corresponding to the anal area of the hind wings (T-B).
anal fimbria, in Hymenoptera, fringes about the anus (T-B).
anal fold, claval furrow, q.v. (T-B, after Snodgrass); in the Mastotermitidae (Isoptera) and cockroaches (Blattaria), a distinctive fold in the hind wing, situated between the first anal vein and the anal field, reduced or absent in other termite families, which lack the anal lobe (Emerson).
anal lobe(s), a lobe at the posterior part of the wing (Borror et al.); a distinctive, fanlike portion of the hind wing of Mastotermitidae (Isoptera) and cockroaches (Blattaria), containing the veins of the anal field, folded at rest beneath the anterior part of the wing, along the anal fold, being greatly reduced in the forewing of Mastotermitidae and the hind wing of all other families of Isoptera (Emerson); in Eriococcidae, Cerococcidae, and Lecanodiaspididae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea), posterior protrusion of derm at posterior apex of body, one on each side of body (T-B; Miller, in Stehr); in adult Hymenoptera, jugal lobe, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton); in adult Diptera, basal part of wing behind and below anal vein and distal to alula (T-B, after Curran; Saether); in adult Diptera, flexible, more or less triangular area, containing at most 2 branches of the anal vein (McAlpine); in pupal Chironomidae (Diptera), lateral paratergites of anal segment (a complex of segments IX, X, and XI), occasionally absent in some Orthocladinae (Saether) (see paddle).
anal scale, one of the lateral processes of the ovipositor in Cynipidae (Hymenoptera), lying outside and below the lateral scale (T-B, after J. B. Smith).
anal valve(s), in Collembola, one of the 3 lobes (1 dorsal, 2 ventrolateral) of abdominal segment VI, surrounding the anal opening (Christiansen and Bellinger); in nymphs of Anisoptera (Odonata), musculated valves located behind the branchial chamber, controlling the size of the anal aperture (Chapman); in Isoptera, paraprocts, q.v. (Tuxen); in Phasmida, epiproct + paraprocts (transl. "Analklappen" Tuxen); in Psyllidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), proctiger, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crawford); in Psyllidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), dorsal plate, q.v. (Tuxen); in Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera), sclerites of anal style (Tuxen); in Lepidoptera, valvae, q.v. (Tuxen, after Wallace); in Lepidoptera, papillae anales, q.v. (Tuxen, after Jackson).
anautogenous, in some mosquitoes (Culicidae), black flies (Simuliidae), and other blood-feeding Diptera, and some Hymenoptera parasitoids, laying no eggs until after a meal (Chapman; Gauld and Bolton); see autogenous.
androphore, in Cynipidae (Hymenoptera), a parthenogenetic that lays only eggs (Gauld and Bolton); see gynophore.
anellus (pl., anelli), in insects, a sclerotization of the inner wall of the phallocrypt or phallotheca, often forming a ring or tube about base of the aedeagus (T-B, after Snodgrass); in Lepidoptera, a sclerotized structure supporting and often surrounding the terminal part of the aedoeagus, often articulating with the bases of the harpes, its ventral part forming a median plate below the aedoeagus, called the juxta (T-B, after Klots); in some adult Hymenoptera, one or more very short ringlike segments at base of antennal flagellum, immediately distal to pedical (Gauld and Bolton).
aner, a insect, applied especially to ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (T-B, after W. M. Wheeler; Leftwich).
angular area, in Hymenoptera, the posterior of the 3 areas on the metanotum between the lateral and pleural carinae; third pleural area (T-B).
annelet, in adult Hymenoptera, anellus, q.v., of antenna (T-B).
annellus, in adult Hymenoptera, anellus, q.v., of antenna (T-B).
annual colony, in social Hymenoptera, a colony that lasts only one season and dies out at its end (T-B).
annular lamina, in Formicidae (Hymenoptera), sternum IX (Tuxen).
annulus (pl., annuli), a ring encircling an article, segment, spot or mark (T-B); annulet, q.v. (T-B); ringlike subdivision of the antennal flagellum (Chapman); in Tubulifera (Thysanoptera), incorrectly applied to periandrium or phallobase, q.v. (Tuxen, after Priesner; Heming); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), anal tube, q.v. (Tuxen, after Verhoeff); in Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera), vinculum, q.v. (Tuxen, after van Eecke); in Hymenoptera, reinforcing struts at one or both ends of a segment of a gonapophysis (Tuxen, after Smith); in Hymenoptera, basal ring, q.v. (Tuxen, after Beck).
ant(s), member of the superfamily Formicoidea (Hymenoptera) (Hennig).
ant mimicry, resemblance to ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), occurring in many orders of insects, as e.g., first instar nymphs of the Australian Extatosoma tiaratum (Phasmida: Phasmatidae) (Key, in CSIRO); see myrmecomorphy.
antenna cleaner, in adult Hymenoptera, an excavation on the interior base of the first tarsomere of the anterior tarsus fringed with a row of bristles (antenna comb), covered by a movable process from the end of the tibia (strigilis), forming an opening through which the antenna may be drawn (T-B); any structure on the anterior tibia resembling or functioning similarly to the antenna cleaner of adult Hymenoptera (T-B); in adult Lepidoptera, epiphysis, q.v. (Common, pers. comm.).
antenna comb, in adult Hymenoptera, row of bristles lining a groove at the proximal end of the anterior tarsus, forming comblike structure of the antenna cleaner, q.v. (Leftwich); see strigil.
antennal comb, in adult Hymenoptera, strigil, q.v. (T-B).
antennal fovea, in some Derbidae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Fulgoroidea), U-shaped area formed by the foliaceous extension of the ventrolateral carinae of the pronotum which appears to surround the antenna (Fennah); in adult Diptera, antennal groove, q.v. (T-B); in some adult Hymenoptera, the depressed area surrounding torulus, frequently connected with the antennal furrows and the lateral foveae (T-B).
antennal furrows, in some adult Hymenoptera, furrows or grooves extending from the anterior tentorial pits along the lateral margin of the toruli across the frons to near the lateral ocelli, thence across the vertex to the occipital ridge; most frequently complete, but at times with certain sections obsolete (T-B); see antennal scrobe, antennal fovea, vertical furrows, lateral foveae, ocellar furrows, and interocellar furrows.
antennal groove, in adult Diptera, one of a pair of grooves on the facial plate which receive the antennae (T-B, McAlpine); in adult Curculionoidea (Coleoptera), scrobe, q.v. (Borror et al.); in Hymenoptera, the curved portion of the antennal furrow extending on each side of the head between the anterior tentorial pits and the frontal crest around the lateral margin of the toruli (T-B); in fleas (Siphonaptera) a sulcus just behind the eye which divides the head into 2 regions (T-B); see antennal fossa and antennal fovea.
antennal scrobe, in some adult Hymenoptera, one of a pair of excavations on frons, receiving the basal part of the antenna (Gauld and Bolton); see antennal groove and antennal fovea.
anterior oblique suture, in many adult Aculeata (Hymenoptera), a groove extending from subalar pit to the epicnemal carina (Gauld and Bolton).
anteroadmedian lines, in adult Hymenoptera, anterior paramedial lines of the mesoscutum (Gibson).
antescutal depression, in adult Zelinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a transverse depression between the dorsoanterior part of the pronotum and the middle lobe of the mesoscutum (van Achterberg).
anthophila, in Hymenoptera, species in which the basal joint of the hind tarsus is dilated and pubescent, i.e., bees (Apoidea) (T-B).
ants' eggs, pupae of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), commonly and erroneously called eggs when they are used for feeding fish, etc. (Leftwich).
aphidicolous, frequenting aphid (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) colonies, being applied to ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (T-B).
apical area, apical cell, q.v., of wing (T-B); in Ensifera (Orthoptera), distal end of the dorsal field of the forewing, posterior to the mirror (Otte, pers. comm.); in adult Aprocrita (Hymenoptera), petiolar area, q.v., of propodeum (T-B).
apical transverse carina, in adult Hymenoptera, the carina which crosses the metanotum behind the middle and separates the median area from the petiolar area (T-B); see area.
apimyiasis, myiasis of the adult honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) caused by larvae of Senotainia tricuspis Meigen (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), Rondanioestrus apivorus de Villers (Oestridae), and certain other fly species (Steinhaus and Martignoni).
apitoxin, the poison of bees' stings (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) consisting chiefly of histamine-producing enzymes and proteins of low molecular weight (Leftwich).
Apocrita, suborder of Hymenoptera in which segment I of the abdomen is fused to the thorax to form the propodeum in the adult and in which the larvae are apodous (T-B; CSIRO); see Symphyta.
apodeme of hemitergite IX, in Hymenoptera, an anterior apodeme of hemitergite IX (Tuxen, after Michener).
apodeme of penis valve, in Hymenoptera, basal apodeme of penis valve usually extending into lumen of gonobase (Tuxen, after Michener).
apodeme of stylet, in Hymenoptera, apodeme at base of sting bulb (Tuxen, after Michener).
apoid, resembling larvae of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (Peterson).
Apoidea, superfamily within the Aculeata (Hymenoptera), including the bees, characterized by branched hairs on the body and the basitarsus of the hind leg much broader than following segments (Riek, in CSIRO); Apoidea + Sphecoidea (Gauld and Bolton).
apomictic parthenogenesis, parthenogenesis in which no reduction division occurs in the maturation division of the oocyte so that the offspring have the same genetic constitution as the mother and all are females, commonly occurring in Blattidae (Blattaria), Aphididae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera), and Curculionidae (Coleoptera) (Chapman); see automictic parthenogenesis and thelytoky.
appendiculate marginal cell, in adult Hymenoptera, marginal cell with the vein forming the posterior margin extending a short distance beyond the apex of the cell (Borror et al.).
apterergate, in vespid wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), a wingless worker in a species of normally winged workers (Tulloch, after Gaul).
apterous neotenic, in termites (Isoptera), ergatoid reproductive, q.v. (Wilson).
archedictyon, the primitive original vein network characterizing the wings of many of the most ancient insect fossils (T-B, after Needham; Mackerras, in CSIRO); in Mastotermitidae and Hodotermitidae (Isoptera), the complex network or reticulum of irregular veinlets between the veins in the apical 3 quarters of both wings, including the anal lobe (Emerson).
area (pl., areae), cell, q.v., of wing (T-B); in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), one of more cells enclosed by keels on the propodeum (Gauld and Bolton); see areola.
areola (pl., areolae), in certain Hemiptera, a small cell on the wings (T-B); in Lepidoptera, a small space or window on the obverse surface of a scale (Downey and Allyn); in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), the central of 3 median areas on the propodeum (T-B); see area.
areolet, a small wing cell (T-B; Borror et al.); in adult Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera), the small submarginal cell opposite the second recurrent vein (Borror et al.).
army ant, a member of an ant species, particulary of the subfamily Dorylinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), that shows both nomadic and group-predatory behavior, i.e., the nest site is changed at relatively freqent intervals, in some cases daily, and the workers forage in groups (Wilson).
arolanna (pl., arolannae), in adult Hymenoptera, arolium, q.v. (T-B, after MacGillivray).
arrhenotokous, capable of producing offspring only, as in worker bees and some sawflies (Hymenoptera) (T-B).
arrhenotoky, parthenogenetic production of males from unfertilized eggs, e.g., drone bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) (T-B; Wilson).
arthrostyli, in Ephemeroptera, genostyles, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton); in larval Megalodontoidea (Hymenoptera: Symphyta), subanal appendages, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).
astelocyttarous nests, nests of social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), in which the comb is attached directly to a support and lacks pillars (Wilson, after Richards and Richards).
aulax (pl., aulaces), in Hymenoptera, groove on dorsal ramus of gonapophysis VIII into which fits a tongue, rhachis, from ventral ramus of gonapophysis IX (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith).
auricle(s), an appendage resembling a little ear (T-B, after J. B. Smith); a chamber of the insect heart (T-B); in some Anisoptera (Odonata), oreillets, q.v. (T-B, after Imms; O'Farrell, in CSIRO); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), variously shaped structure on metapleuron of adult bugs assisting in spreading the products of scent glands from the ostiolar groove upon the evaporatorium of the metathoracic scent gland (Slater); in Melitaea (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), small, paired invaginations of sides of lamella postvaginalis which extend mediad and dorsad on antrum (Tuxen, after Higgins); in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), pollen press, q.v. (T-B; Borror et al.); in andrenid bees (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae), a short membranous process placed laterally on the ligula (T-B, after J. B. Smith).
autoparasitism, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), return of mated females to former colony resulting in polygyny (Gauld and Bolton).
auxiliary worker, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), slave of slave-making ants (T-B); see dulosis.
axilla (pl., axillae), in some Symphyta and Chalcididae (Hymenoptera), posterior portion of mesoscutum separated off by transcutal articulation (Gauld and Bolton); in many Apocrita (Hymenoptera), one of 2 small posterolateral plates formed from the mesoscutum, separated from rest of scutum by transcutal articulation (T-B, after MacGillivray; Riek, in CSIRO; Gibson; Gauld and Bolton).
axillar carina, in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), carina that delineates the dorsal axillar surface from the lateral axillar surface (Gibson).
axillary fossa, in adult Eumeninae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), depression in axilla (Carpenter, pers. comm., after Carpenter and Cumming).
axillary vein, in adult Ephemeroptera and Orthoptera, intercalary vein, q.v. (T-B, after J. B. Smith); in adult Diptera, the second branch of anal vein (A2), when present (T-B, after Curran; McAlpine); in hind wing of Symphyta (Hymenoptera), third anal vein (3A) (Borror et al.).