The Social Insects Glossary

This glossary of entomological terms is based on Torre Bueno's Glossary, from which all terms relevant to ants, wasps, bees and termites where extracted.

  A | B - F | G - M | N - P | Q - U | V - Z  

basal area, wing base, q.v. (T-B); in Ensifera (Orthoptera), the dorsal area of forewing between the pronotum and the stridulum (Otte, pers. comm.); in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), the anterior of the 3 median areas on the propodeum (T-B) (see area).

basal bridge, in Hymenoptera, dorsal bridge of penis valves, q.v. (Tuxen, after Beck).

basal ring, in Protura, basiperiphallus, q.v. (Tuxen); in Diptera, e.g., Trichoceridae, ring-shaped amalgamation of tergum and sternum IX (Tuxen); in larval Culicidae (Diptera), a pedicel supporting one or more setae (Harbach and Knight, after Tanaka et al.); in Hymenoptera, sclerotized ring surrounding parameres proximally, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton; Gauld and Bolton).

basal suture, in Isoptera, a line of weakness along which the fracture and consequent shedding of the wings takes place (T-B).

basal transverse carina, in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), a carina which crosses the propodeum before the middle and separates the basal area from the areola (T-B); see area.

basal vein, in adult Chironomidae (Diptera), brachiolum, q.v. (Saether) (see stem vein); in some adult Hymenoptera, short branch of media (M) extending between M + CuA and Rs + M, located about the middle of the wing (Borror et al.; Riek, in CSIRO).

basiparamere, in Hymenoptera, gonocoxite, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).

basitibial plate, in adult Aculeata (Hymenoptera), a small plate or scalelike projection at the base of the hind tibia (Michener).

basivalves, in Isoptera, basivalvulae, q.v. (Tuxen, after Browman).

basivalvulae, in 20insects, small sclerites sometimes occurring at the bases of the first valvulae, often confused with first valvifers (T-B, after Snodgrass); in Isoptera, paired sclerites in intersegmental membrane between sternum VIII and IX (Tuxen, after Geyer); in Isoptera, small paired sclerites sometimes differentiated at base of ventral valves) (Tuxen, after Crampton); in Psyllidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), a pair of mediodorsal processes from ventral valvulae (Tuxen).

basivolsella (pl., basivolsellae), in Hymenoptera, the main plate of the volsella, i.e., the volsella except for chelate apex (Tuxen, after Peck).

basivolsellar apodeme, in Hymenoptera, apodeme from anterior end of volsellar strut (Tuxen, after Peck).

Batesian mimicry, that form of mimicry described by H. W. Bates, in which an edible species (the mimic) obtains security by counterfeiting the appearance of an inedible species (the model), e.g., clearwing moth (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) resembling a bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) (T-B, after Folsom and Wardle; Leftwich); see Müllerian mimicry.

batumen, in stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), a protective layer of propolis or hard cerumen (sometimes vegetable matter, mud, or various mixtures) that encloses the nest cavity of a colony (Wilson).

bedegaur gall, a red and green hairy or bristly gall occurring on wild rose bushes and produced by the cynipid gall wasp Diplolepis rosae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea) (Leftwich); see pea gall.

bee bread, in honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), a mixture of honey and pollen fed to larvae of developing workers (Norris, in CSIRO).

bee paralysis, a fatal disease of adult honey bees and certain bumblebees, (Hymenoptera: Apidae) including acute paralysis and chronic paralysis (Steinhaus and Martignoni).

bees, Hymenoptera belonging to the superfamily Apoidea (Riek, in CSIRO).

Bettlach May disease, a paralysis of adult honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), reported chiefly from Switzerland, caused by poisonous substances in the pollen of Ranunculus species (buttercups) (Steinhaus and Martignoni).

biological control, the use, by man, of living organisms to control (usually meaning to suppress) undesirable animals and plants, e.g., control of the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae) by the chalcidoid wasp Encarsia (Hymenoptera) (T-B; Steinhaus and Martignoni; Leftwich); the action of parasites, predators, or pathogens on a host or prey population which produces a lower general equilibrium position than would prevail in the absence of these agents (Steinhaus and Martignoni); see microbial control.

bivouac, in army ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), the mass of workers within which the queen and brood find refuge (Wilson).

blade, any thin, flat structure like a leaf or a sword or knife (T-B); an elongate, flattened, usually stiff spicule (Harbach and Knight); lacinia, q.v. (T-B); in Collembola, the principle ramus of the maxilla (Christiansen and Bellinger); in adult Diptera, main area of wing distal to stalk (McAlpine); in adult Hymenoptera, lamnium, q.v. (Tuxen).

Blattiformida, group of Polyneoptera, including the recent orders Dermaptera, Grylloblattodea, Zoraptera, Isoptera, Blattaria, and Mantodea, and the extinct orders Protelytroptera and Protoblattodea (Boudreaux).

Blattodea, Blattaria, q.v. (Mackerras, in CSIRO); Blattaria and Isoptera (Hennig); Blattaria and Mantodea (Boudreaux, after Brunner).

Blattopteroidea, superorder encompasing the cockroaches (Blattaria), mantids (Mantodea), and termites (Isoptera) (Hennig).

blotch, a large irregular spot or mark (T-B); in certain sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta), a large whitish membrane between the abdomen and the thorax (T-B).

boring bristle, in Hymenoptera, first gonapophyis, q.v. (Tuxen).

bouton (French, meaning: button), in adult bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), flabellum, q.v. (T-B).

brachial cells, in adult Hymenoptera, closed cells of the wing, near the base (T-B, after Norton).

brachial nerves, in adult Hymenoptera, brachial veins, q.v. (T-B).

brachial veins, in adult Hymenoptera, the longitudinal veins of the forewing, near the base (T-B).

brachypterous neotenic, in termites (Isoptera), nymphoid reproductive, q.v. (Wilson).

bristle valve, in Hymenoptera, first gonapophysis, q.v. (Tuxen).

brochus (pl., brochi), in Hymenoptera, dorsal serrula at apices of gonapophyses IX (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith).

brood cannibalism, among the social Hymenoptera, eating of immature stages by workers in the same colony (Tulloch, after Gaul; Matthews and Matthews).

brood food, in honeybees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), a secretion of the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of workers fed to larvae, especially to larvae destined to become queens (Chapman); see royal jelly.

brosse, a brush of hairs; in Apoidea (Hymenoptera), the scopa, q.v. (T-B).

bulb of sting, in Aculeata (Hymenoptera), enlarged basal part of fused second valvulae (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).

bulla (pl., bullae), in wing of adult Hymenoptera, fenestra, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

bursa (pl., bursae), a pouch or sac (T-B); in Trichoptera, a wing pouch in connection with a stalked hair pencil (T-B); in Diptera, a saccate, dorsal invagination of the genital chamber (McAlpine); in Apis (Hymenoptera: Apidae), large proximal part of endophallus (Tuxen).

calie, an individual unit of a subterranean termite (Isoptera) nest, connected to the other units by galleries (Noirot, in Krishna and Weesner).

calotodomous, pertaining to nests, especially wasp nests (Hymenoptera), in which the combs are surrounded by an envelope (Wilson).

calyptodomous, applied to wasp nests (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) which are enclosed in a layer or layers of carton (T-B, after Gaul).

camera, in adult Hymenoptera and other orders, auxilia, q.v., of tarsus (T-B, after MacGillivray).

caprification, fertilization of fruit-producing fig, with pollen from inedible fig by species of Agaonidae, e.g., Blastophaga psenes (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) (T-B; Riek, in CSIRO).

caprifier, a minute hymenopterous wasp, e.g., Blastophaga psenes (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae), which fertilizes certain figs by carrying pollen from the to plant (T-B).

carapace, in Crustacea, a hard dorsal covering consisting of the fused dorsal sclerites (T-B; Borror et al.); in adult Chelonus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), fused abdominal tergites II--IV, covering reduced posterior segments (Gauld and Bolton).

cardo (pl., cardines), the proximal joint of the protopodite (T-B); the basal division of the maxilla (T-B, after Tillyard; Borror et al.); in Coleoptera, basal piece, q.v. (Tuxen, after Kerschner); in Hymenoptera, basal ring, q.v. (T-B; Tuxen, after Thomson); in millipedes (Diplopoda), one of 2 small laterobasal sclerites in the gnathochilarium (Borror et al.).

carton, the paper manufactured by Hymenoptera for nest construction (T-B); substance consisting largely of excreta or semidigested wood or grass and organic matter forming the walls of the innermost galleries in termitaria of Isoptera (Norris, in CSIRO).

caudal protuberances, in larval Nematinae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), a pair of conical protuberances on the posterior margin of the tergite above the suranal lobe (Gauld and Bolton).

caudal vesicle, in larval Braconidae (Hymenoptera), eversible hind gut functioning in gas exchange (Chapman).

caudate larva, in Apocrita (Hymenoptera), rather unspecialized, distinctly segmented larva with a long fleshy caudal appendage arising from the last abdominal segment, e.g., first instar larva of Pygostolus falcatus (Braconidae) (Gauld and Bolton).

caulis (pl., caules), funicle, q.v., of antenna (T-B); the corneous basal part of the jaws (T-B); in Tortricidae (Lepidoptera), median rodlike structure, ventrad of aedoeagus, connecting juxta with anellus (Tuxen, after Obraztsov); in Hymenoptera, gonobase + gonocoxites + volsellae, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).

cenchrus (pl., cenchri), in adult Symphyta (Hymenoptera), specialized lobes on the metanotum which engage with rough areas on the undersides of the forewings to hold then in place (T-B, after Comstock; Chapman).

centris, in aculeate Hymenoptera, sting, q.v. (T-B).

cephalic foveae, in Eumeninae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), pits posterior to ocelli on vertex (Carpenter, pers. comm., after Carpenter and Cumming).

cephalic gland(s), in Isoptera, frontal gland, q.v. (Krishna, pers. comm.); in Zorotypus barberi Gurney (Zoraptera), a gland on the head (Choe); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), maxillary glands, q.v. (Cobben).

cephalic salivary glands, in the honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae), a pair of glands lying against the posterior wall of the head (Imms).

cephalocaudal suture, in Vespidae (Hymenoptera), the median suture dividing the mesepisternum (T-B, after Viereck).

Cephoidea, superfamily within the suborder Symphyta (Hymenoptera), including stem sawflies of the family Cephidae, in which the adults lack cenchri, the single foretibial spur developed into a calcar, and the venation approaching that in Apocrita, and in which the larvae are stem borers in Gramineae and Rosaceae (Riek, in CSIRO).

Ceraphronoidea, superfamily within the suborder Apocrita (Hymenoptera), including the Ceraphronoidea and Megaspilidae (both formerly included in the Proctotrupoidea) (Gauld and Bolton, after Masner and Dessart).

cerumen, a mixture of resin and wax, used for nest construction by stingless bees and honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apinae, Meloponinae) (T-B, after Rau; Wilson).

cervical glands, in some larval Lepidoptera (especially Notodontidae, Noctuidae and Arctiidae), an eversible defensive gland on the prothorax located ventrally, immediately behind the head (Stehr); in larval Xyelidae (Hymenoptera), dorsolateral glands located between the head and thorax (Peterson).

chalastrogastrous, with the abdomen broadly sessile and with no marked constriction at its base, referring to adult Symphyta (Hymenoptera) (T-B); see clistogastrous.

Chalcidoidea, superfamily of Apocrita (Hymenoptera), including Chalcididae and many other families, characterized by adults with reduced forewing venation, a pronotum separated from the tegula by the prepectus, no subantennal groove, and hind tibia without a spur modified for preening, including small to minute parasitic and phytophagous species (Riek, in CSIRO).

chalk brood, a disease of larval honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) caused by the fungus Ascosphaera apis killing larvae within the first 2 days after the cells have been sealed with the cadavers drying up to form a hard, shrunken chalklike lump (Steinhaus and Martignoni).

chiloscleres, in larval Camponotini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a pair of conspicuous dark brown spots, one on either side of the labrum (Wheeler and Wheeler).

chronic paralysis, a fatal disease of adult honey bees and of certain bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), caused by virus, in which the bees are able to feed but are feeble and trembly in movement (Steinhaus and Martignoni); see acute paralysis.

chrymosymphily, friendly relations between ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and larval Lepidoptera, based upon the attractive scent emitted by the larvae (Tulloch, after Gaul).

Chrysidoidea, superfamily within the Apocrita (Hymenoptera), including the families Cryinidae, Embolemidae, Bethylidae, Plumariidae, Sclerogibbidae, Scolebythidae, and Chrysididae, possessing the same number of antennal segments in both sexes, second gonocoxa 9 comprising proximal and distal portions which articulate at their point of contact, and abdominal tergite VIII (seventh gastral tergite) complete, not deeply cleft medially (Gauld and Bolton).

claustral colony founding, in Isoptera, the procedure during which queens (or royal pairs) seal thmeselves off in cells and rear the first generation of workers on nutrients obtained mostly or entirely from their own storage tissues, including fat body and histolysed wing muscles (Wilson).

claval lobe, in adults of some Hymenoptera, posterior marginal lobe of wing between claval furrow and jugal fold (Gauld and Bolton).

clavus (pl., clavi), in the wing, the area behind the claval furrow (Chapman); antennal club, q.v. (T-B); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), the usually parallel-sided and sharply pointed anal area of the hemelytron (T-B); in Coccoidea (Hemiptera:Sternorrhyncha), clypeus, q.v. (T-B, after MacGillivary); in Noctuidae (Lepidoptera), rounded, peaked or brushlike process of dorsal margin of sacculus (Tuxen, after Pierce); in adult Hymenoptera, area of wing between claval furrow and jugal fold (Gauld and Bolton); in adult Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera), the knob at the end of the stigmal vein (T-B).

cleptobiosis, a form of symbiosis in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in which small ants have nests near or in the nests of larger species, feeding on refuse or waylaying the workers and stealing their food (T-B).

clistogastrous, having a petiolate abdomen, referring to adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera) (T-B); see chalastrogastrous.

clustering, the habit of gathering in groups prior to mating or prior to hibernation, or due to low temperature, e.g, among Polistes wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) (Tulloch, after Fernald, Rau, Gaul).

cochlearium, in Hymenoptera, gonostylus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Hartig).

cocoon, a covering of the pupa, composed partly or wholly of silk, spun or constructed by many larvae (T-B), e.g., in Lepidoptera (Bombycoidea), Siphonaptera, Trichoptera, and many Hymenoptera (Chapman); in Hydrophilus (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), a silken sac produced by the accessory glands into which eggs are laid, equipped with a silken mast which serves a respiratory function (Chapman).

collenchyma, in galls of Cynipidae (Hymenoptera), the layer lying directly below the epidermis, in which the cells have thickened walls and, usually, crystalline contents, appearing hard, compact and crystalline to the eye (T-B, after Kinsey).

colonizing flight, in Isoptera, dispersal flight, q.v. (Krishna, pers. comm.).

colpus (pl., colpi), in Hymenoptera, groove in overhang of annulus, demarcating membrane between individual segments of gonapophysis (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith).

comb, a layer of brood cells or cocoons crowded together in a regular arrangment, characteristic of nests of many species of social wasps and bees (Hymenoptera) (T-B; Wilson); in Macrotermitinae (Isoptera: Termitidae) fungus comb, q.v. (T-B); in adult Siphonaptera, ctenidium, q.v. (Lewis, pers. comm.); in Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera), the serrate distal margin of the rostellum of the valva (Tuxen, after Nabokov); in most culicine and first instar anopheline larvae (Diptera: Culicidae), a row or patch of specialized spicules centered on each side of abdominal segment VIII (Peterson; Harbach and Knight, after Dyar); see antenna comb and honey comb.

combs, in larval Culicidae (Diptera), certain hairs on the upper surface of the maxillae, with which the brushes are cleaned (T-B); in adult Hymenoptera, strigilis, q.v. (T-B); see ctenidia.

complemental reproductive, complementary reproductive, special sexual forms in the Termitidae (Isoptera), which in case of loss or death, replace the king (reproductive ) and queen (reproductive ) of the colony; produced from the nymphs by special feeding.

conical peg of gonostylus, in Pamphiliidae (Hymenoptera), lamnium, q.v. (Tuxen, after Middlekauff).

copularium, in termites (Isoptera), the chamber housing the colony-founding couple (Wilson; Thorne, pers. comm.).

copulatory ossicule, in Hymenoptera, digitus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton).

corbicula (pl., corbiculae), in bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), pollen basket, q.v. (T-B; Leftwich).

cornu (pl., cornua), in Anisoptera (Odonata), flagella, q.v. (Tuxen, after Kennedy); in Orthoptera, ancora, q.v. (Tuxen, after Ramme); in Cicadidae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha), hornlike process terminating vesica (Tuxen, after Orian); in adult Chironomidae (Diptera), projections at dorsal end of cibarial pump considered homologous with cornua or oral arm of hypopharyngeal suspensorium (Saether); in larval Muscomorpha (Diptera), paired arms of tentoropharyngeal sclerite, including the dorsal and ventral cornua (Teskey, in McAlpine), or, wings, q.v. (Ferrar); in Apis (Hymenoptera: Apidae), projection from bursa of endophallus (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).

coronula, a cricle or semicircle of spines at the apex of the tibia (T-B); in adult Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a funnel-shaped circlet of setae around the edge of the acidopore (Brown, pers. comm., after Hung and Brown).

corpora pedunculata (sing., corpus pedunculatum), paired pedunculate masses in the protocerebrum (T-B), involved in visual integration in social Hymenoptera and also probably concerned with the selection and sequential organization of behavior patterns (Chapman, after Howse).

costula, in Hymenoptera, a small ridge separating the externomedian metathoracic area into 2 parts (T-B); see costule.

coxite(s), in adult insects, coxopodite, q.v. (Tuxen); in Archaeognatha and Zygentoma, flat appendages on the abdominal sterna, often bearing styli and exsertile vesicles (Tuxen; Sturm, pers. comm.); in Grylloblattodea, gonocoxae, q.v. (Tuxen, after Walker); in Thysanoptera, lateral parts of sternum IX (Tuxen, after de Gryse and Treherne); in Diptera, basistylus, q.v. (Tuxen, after de Meijere); in Chironomidae (Diptera), gonocoxite, q.v. (Saether); in Sarcophaga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), surstyli, q.v. (Tuxen, after Rohdendorf); in Siphonaptera, basimere, q.v. (Tuxen); in Hymenoptera, gonocoxite, q.v. (Tuxen); in Neuroptera, gonapophyses laterales, q.v (Tuxen, after Tjeder); in Coleoptera, hemisternites, q.v. (Tuxen, after Tanner).

coxopodite, in Arthropoda, the basal segment of the leg, being homologous with the coxa (T-B; Boudreaux); basal segment of gonopod (Tuxen); in Archaeognatha and Zygentoma, coxite, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in Grylloblattodea, gonocoxae, q.v. (Tuxen, after Walker); in Agulla (Raphidioptera: Raphidiidae), gonocoxites, q.v. (Tuxen, after Ferris and Pennebaker; Friedrich); in Corydalidae (Megaloptera), epiproct, q.v. (Tuxen, after Friedrich); in Mecoptera, gonocoxites, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in Trichoptera, the basal segment of an inferior appendage (Tuxen); in Diptera, basistylus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass) or gonocoxite, q.v. (Saether); in Hymenoptera, gonocoxite, q.v. (Tuxen, after Beck).

coxosternite, the limbbase element (or elements) of a coxo- or pleurosternum (T-B, after Snodgrass); in Symphyta (Hymenoptera), the apparent sternum IX forming a subgenital plate ventrally enclosing the genital capsule (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith); in Symphyta (Hymenoptera), remnants of sternum VIII and IX between gonocoxites VIII and IX (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith).

crepidium, in adult Hymenoptera, ventral ptyche, q.v. (Tuxen, after Ross).

crochet(s), any small hooklike organ (Leftwich); in Lepidoptera larvae, curved spines or hooks on the planta of the prolegs (T-B); in Ephemeroptera, genostyles, q.v. (Tuxen, after de Geer); in Siphonaptera, paired, frequently hook-shaped sclerites arising within the inner walls of the aedeagus, usually flanking the inner tube, variable in both size and shape, being rotated during copulation and pushed into the membranous slit of abdominal sternum IX of the (Tuxen, after Snodgrass; Rothschild and Traub); in larval Atrichopogon (Ceratopogonidae), Chironomidae, Atherix (Athericeridae), and Thaumaleidae (Diptera), relatively large, strongly hooked spinules on prolegs (Teskey, in McAlpine); in Hymenoptera, parameres, q.v. (Tuxen, after Radoszkowski).

cryptogyne, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a term applied to queens which are indistinguishable from workers (Tulloch).

cryptopleury, in some adult Hymenoptera, the condition in which the propleuron is extensively or entirely concealed by the lateral part of the pronotum (Gauld and Bolton).

ctenidium (pl., ctenidia), comblike structure on any part of an insect (T-B); in Psocoptera, cteniobothria, q.v. (Borror et al.); in Polyctenidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicoidea), comblike rows of flattened spines on the body (Woodward et al., in CSIRO); in adult Diptera, comblike row of spinules at the distal end of the anteroventral surface of the forefemur (McAlpine); in adult Siphonaptera, combs of backward directed setae on body (T-B; Dunnet, in CSIRO; Lewis, pers. comm.); in Hymenoptera, spines on annuli of gonapophyses (Tuxen, after Ross).

cupping disc, in primitive Symphyta (Hymenoptera), suction pad at tip of gonostylus (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).

cupule, a cup-shaped organ (T-B); in Hymenoptera, basal ring, q.v. (Tuxen, after Audouin); in Lithosiinae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), pouches in sternum VII at either side of lamella (Tuxen, after Field).

Cursorida, name for hypothesized monophyletic group of Polyneoptera (Insecta), including the orders Zoraptera, Isoptera, Blattaria, and Mantodea (Boudreaux).

cuspis (pl., cuspides), cusp, q.v. (T-B); in Chironomidae (Diptera), outer, apical, nonmoveable finger of inferior and superior volsella (Saether); in Hymenoptera, outer, apical nonmoveable finger of volsella (Tuxen, after Michener).

cuspis volsellaris, in Hymenoptera, cuspis, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).

cyclopoid larva, in Hymenoptera with hypermetamorphosis (e.g., some Platygasteridae), a larva characterized by a large swollen cephalothorax, very long sicklelike mandibles and a pair of bifurcate processes of various forms, resembling the nauplius larva of crustaceans (T-B, after Imms).

cyclops, a heretitary deformity of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), consisting of a fusion of both compound eyes at the vertex of the head (Steinhaus and Martignoni).

cyclostome mouth, in Hymenoptera, hypoclypeal depression, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

Cynipoidea, superfamily within the Apocrita (Hymenoptera), including the families Cynipidae, Charipidae, Eucoilidae, Liopteridae, Ibaliidae, and Figitidae, characterized by adults in which the lateral pronotum is not vertically grooved for reception of the forefemur, the spiracular lobe of pronotum is not margined with close fine hairs, there is no subantennal groove, and none of the spurs of the hind tibia are modified for preening (Riek, in CSIRO; Gauld and Bolton).

cypsella (pl., cypsellae), in Hymenoptera, emargination between teeth of gonapophyses; the ventral or dorsal termination of the colpus (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith).

dances, stereotyped movements of honeybee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) foragers on the vertical face of the honeycomb inside the hive which communicate sources of food, e.g., round dance, waggle dance (Matthews and Matthews).

dart(s), in Hymenoptera, sting, q.v. (T-B) or first gonapophyses, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).

Dasygastres, bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), with pollen-carrying structures on the abdomen (T-B); see ventral scopa.

daubing, a process in which an intruder into a colony is soaked with liquids from the mouth; a defensive action of bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) when rejecting an intruder of superior fighting ability (Tulloch, after Gaul).

Day's organ, in some Pompilidae (Hymenoptera), an organ with a sculptured surface, located in the intersegmental membrane or on the anterior margin of abdominal tergite IV (and sometimes V) (Gauld and Bolton).

dealation, the loss of wings in certain groups by casting or breaking off done by the insect itself (T-B); in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and other insects, the removal of the wings by the queens during or immediately following the nuptial flight and prior to colony foundation (Wilson; Leftwich); in termites (Isoptera), the shedding of the wings of and reproductive along the basal suture after the dispersal flight (Krishna, pers. comm.).

decalatecoria, in Isoptera, flexible membrane between sternum and tergum X (Tuxen, after Geyer).

decapygidium (pl., decapygydia), in Isoptera, pygydium when formed by abdominal segment X (Tuxen, after Crampton).

decasternal coria, in Isoptera, flexible membrane between sternum IX and sternum X (Tuxen, after Geyer).

defaunate, in invertebrate pathology, to remove from an organism its commensalistic and mutualistic microfauna, for which the organism ordinarily serves as a host, e.g., removing the flagellates from the alimentary tract of termites (Isoptera) (Steinhaus and Martignoni).

degenerate slave makers, slave making ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) that permit the host to live and continue egg production, thus forming mixed colonies (Tulloch, after Gaul).

depauperate colony, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), an impoverished or dying colony (T-B).

desmergate, an ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) intermediate between a soldier and a worker (T-B; Leftwich).

detached notum, in Aculeata (Hymenoptera), detached proximal extension of notum of gonapophyses IX (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith).

detached rhaches (sing., rhachis), in Hymenoptera, the rhachies from either ventral ramus in the gonapophyseal midsection which are detached from the rami and fused to form a single sclerite, independent of the gonopod, forming the floor of the gonapophyses of Siricidae and Cephidae (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith).

diacammatogyne, worker ants of the genus Diacamma (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) which take the place of normal females (Tulloch); see cryptogyne.

dichthadiiform ergatogyne, in army ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a member of an aberrant reproductive caste, characterized by possession of a wingless alitrunk, a huge gaster, and an expanded postpetiole (Wilson).

dichthadiigyne, dichthadiiform ergatogyne, q.v. (Brown and Taylor, in CSIRO); an ant without eyes, ocelli or wings, with an exceedingly large gaster and ovaries, peculiar to the Dorylinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (T-B).

Dictyoptera, Blattaria, q.v. (T-B); Blattaria and Mantodea (Alsop, pers. comm., after Chopard); Blattaria, Mantodea, and Isoptera (Alsop, pers. comm., after Wille); see Blattopteroidea.

Dictyopterida, group within the Polyneoptera (Insecta), including the recent orders Zoraptera, Blattaria, Isoptera, and Mantodea, and the extinct order Protoblattoidea (Boudreaux).

digitus (pl., digiti), the terminal joint of the tarsus, bearing the claws; a small appendage attached to the lacinia of the maxilla, rarely present and probably tactile; distitarsus, q.v. (T-B); in Noctuidae (Lepidoptera), small papilla from inner face of cucullus near anal angle of valva (T-B, after Klots; Tuxen, after Pierce) or, a fingerlike lobe arising from the costa of the harpe (Klots); in Chironomidae (Diptera), inner, apical moveable finger of superior volsella (Saether); in Drosophilidae, the lateral plates of the oviscapt (Grimaldi); in Hymenoptera, inner, apical, moveable finger of volsella (Tuxen); see digit.

digitus volsellaris, in Hymenoptera, digitus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).

dinergate, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), soldier, q.v., being a caste with the head and jaws greatly enlarged (T-B; Leftwich).

dinergatogyne, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a mosaic form combining the charcteristics of a soldier (dinergate) and ergatogyne (Tulloch).

dinergatogynomorph, an individual ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in which characteristics alternate with worker and soldier characteristics (Tulloch, after Gaul).

dinopthisergate, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a soldier-worker pupal mosaic which, because of parasitism or other causes, fails to transform to the adult stage (Tulloch).

diphagous parasitoid, in Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera), a species in which the is a parasitoid of the same host species as the , but feeds in a different way, e.g., Coccophagus hemera, of Great Britain (Gauld and Bolton, after Flanders); see heterotrophic parasitoid and heteronomous hyperparasitoid.

diploergate, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a mosaic individual embracing characteristics of both major and media workers (Tulloch, after Gaul).

Diplopteryga, in Hymenoptera, wasps in which the wings are longitudinally folded when at rest, i.e., Vespidae (T-B; Carpenter, pers. comm.).

discal cell, in adult Lepidoptera, large median cell of wing extending from the base toward or beyond the center, resulting from the loss of the chorda and the basal portion of the media (T-B; Common, in CSIRO); in some adult Diptera, closed cell near middle of wing bounded proximally by the base of the third branch of media (M3), posteriorly by a long free vein (probably M3), and distally by medial crossvein (McAlpine); in adult Hymenoptera, first discoidal cell (DC1), q.v. (Borror et al.).

discoidal cell (DC), a term applied to some outstanding cells of an insect wing, e.g., in adult Psocoptera, cell of forewing formed when the cubital crossvein (cu) meets the media (M), being bounded elsewhere by the medial crossvein (m) and the cubital crossvein (cu) (Badonnel); the quadrilateral in Odonata or the median cell in Diptera (T-B, after Tillyard); in Trichoptera, opened or closed cell in the wings formed by the furcation of sector radii (R2+3 and R4+5) (Schmid); in adult Hymenoptera, first discoidal cell, located near the middle of the wing (T-B; Riek, in CSIRO; Gauld and Bolton) or, one or more median cells in distal half of wing, including first discoidal cell (Gauld and Bolton).

discoidal vein, in adult Hymenoptera, anterior cubitus (CuA), extending along the posterior margin of the first median cell (T-B; Riek, in CSIRO).

dispersal flight, in Isoptera, seasonal mass exodus from the nest of winged reproductives, for the purposes of colonization (Krishna, pers. comm.); see nuptial flight and mating flight.

distal rhachis, in Hymenoptera, portion of rhachies at tips of gonapophyses, not fused to each other but may form projecting, sculptured sclerites pointing proximally and distally (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith).

distivolsella (pl., distivolsellae), in Hymenoptera, cuspis, q.v. (Tuxen, after Peck).

distivolsellar apodeme, in Hymenoptera, apodeme of cuspis (Tuxen, after Peck).

Ditrocha, old name for Hymenoptera in which the adult possesses a trochantellus, e.g., some Apocrita (T-B).

dog-ear marks, in bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), small, subtriangular marks of light color, just below the antennae (T-B, after Cockerell).

dorsal axillar surface, in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), region of axilla median to the axillar carina (Gibson).

dorsal bridge of ovipositor, in Hymenoptera, notum, q.v. (Tuxen).

dorsal bridge of penis valves, in Hymenoptera, dorsal sclerotic bridge between bases of penis valves (Tuxen, after Michener).

dorsal gonocoxal bridge, in Hymenoptera, basal sclerotic bridge between gonocoxites on the dorsum (Tuxen, after Michener).

dorsal groove, in adult social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), groove running from the epicranium to the episternal scrobe on the mesepisternum (Carpenter, pers. comm., after Richards).

dorsal ptyche, in and Symphyta, Parasitica, and most Hymenoptera, longitudinal mesal fold in corium of each gonapophysis IX, being a dorsal limit of egg canal and a continuation of ejaculatory duct (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith).

dorsal ramus, in Hymenoptera, dorsal ramus of gonapophysis IX (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith); in Hymenoptera, dorsal apodeme running length of a gonopod and connecting it basally to the gonocoxite, most commonly applied to gonapophyses (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith); in larval Anophelinae (Culicidae) and Dixidae (Diptera), a rodlike structure joining the cibarial bars immediately dorsal to the hypopharynx (Harbach and Knight).

dorsal valve(s), in Orthoptera, dorsal aedeagal valve, q.v. (Tuxen, after Roberts); in Grylloblattodea, second valvulae, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton); in Isoptera, dorsal pair of valves arising from sternum IX (Tuxen); in Psyllidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), dorsal plate, q.v. (Tuxen); in Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), lateral parts of unpaired dorsal gonapophyses directed caudally at end of abdomen; in Mecoptera, paired dorsal lobes of aedeagus (Tuxen, after Byers).

dorsal valvulae, in Odonata, lateral gonapophyses, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton); in Isoptera, dorsal valves, q.v. (Tuxen); in Orthoptera, posterior valvulae, q.v. (Tuxen, after Walker); in Psyllidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), posterior pair of valves of sternum IX (Tuxen); in Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera), sawcase, q.v. (Tuxen).

dorsellum, in adult Hymenoptera, central part of the metanotum (Gauld and Bolton).

dorsope, in adult Zelinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), an anterodorsal depression of the first metasomal tergite, more-or-less pit-shaped, situated between the more-or-less developed dorslateral carina and the dorsal carina (van Achterberg).

dorylaner, unusually large ants in the Dorylini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), characterized by long and peculiar mandibles, long cylindrical abdomen, and peculiar genitalia (T-B).

dorylophile, an obigate guest of one of the army ants belonging to the Dorylini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (Wilson).

doublure, in some Diapriidae (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea), overfolding of tergites alongside of the gaster (Riek, in CSIRO).

driver ants, African army ants belonging to the genus Anomma and, less frequently, other members of the Dorylini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (Wilson).

drone, in social Apoidea (Hymenoptera), the bee, especially a honey bee or bumble bee, that develops from unfertilized eggs (T-B; Wilson).

ductus ejaculatorius (pl., ducti ejaculatorii), in insects, the ectodermal, mostly median, and unpaired exit tube of efferent system, opening by gonopore at tip of penis or into endophallus (vesica in Lepidoptera, in Thysanoptera pseudovirga) (Tuxen); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), the median ectodermal efferent duct proximal to phallus, merging into ductus seminis at foramen ductus (Tuxen, after Meyer); incorrectly applied in Lepidoptera to vesica, q.v. (Tuxen), in Hymenoptera to penis, q.v. (Tuxen, after Kluge), and in Heteroptera to ductus seminis proximalis, q.v. (Tuxen, after Ashlock).

Dufour's gland, in aculeate Hymenoptera, a small, simple sac with thin glandular walls and a delicate muscular sheath, secreting the alkaline element of the poison or various pheromones, opening into the poison duct near the base of the sting (T-B; Wilson; Chapman, after W. M. Wheeler).

dulosis, relation in which workers of a parasitic (dulotic) ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) raid the nests of another species, capture brood (usually in the form of pupae), and rear then as enslaved nestmates (T-B; Wilson).

duplication, in adult Hymenoptera, internal lamina of posterior margin of a tergum or a sternum (Tuxen, after Michener).

Dzierzon's Rule, the supposed rule for sex determination among social Hymenoptera wherein all fertilized eggs become females and all unfertilized eggs become males (T-B, after Gaul); see haplodiploidy.

ecitophile, an obligate guest of one of the army ants belonging to the tribe Ecitonini, especially the genus Eciton (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) itself (Wilson).

ectophallus, in insects, outer phallic wall in distinction to the endophallus (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in Hymenoptera, penis, q.v. (Tuxen).

eighth hemitergites, in Apoidea (Hymenoptera), lateral remnants of abdominal tergum VIII (Tuxen, after Michener).

ejaculatory bulb, in Isoptera, swollen bulbous termination of ejaculatory duct, receiving right and left vasa deferentia (Tuxen, after Weesner); in Diptera, bulbus ejaculatorius, q.v. (T-B, after Snodgrass; Tuxen) or sperm pump, q.v. (McAlpine) ; in Siphonaptera, a muscular, almost spherical, bulblike organ in which sperm is mixed with a secretion from the accessory glands before passing into the penis (Rothschild and Traub).

elaiophores, special glands within flowers that secrete oils that are collected by some bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) (Gauld and Bolton).

elaterium (pl., elateria), in Hymenoptera, cuticular hinge between united dorsal rami of gonapophyses IX (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith).

emmet, an ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (T-B).

endoecie, in Isoptera, the central part of the subterranean nest, containing the eggs and young (Noirot, in Krishna and Weesner).

endoparasites, internal parasites, that usually leave the host before pupation, e.g., larvae of Chalcididae and Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize insects, or certain flies (Diptera) that cause myiasis in humans and other vertebrates (T-B; Leftwich); see ectoparasites and endoparasitoid.

enteric valve, in Isoptera, the valve connecting the first segment of the hind gut with the second segment, or paunch (Noirot et al., in Krishna and Weesner).

enterolithiasis, the presence of enteroliths in the intestinal tract of an animal, e.g., single or agglomerated spherical or polymorphous enteroliths in the rectum of the adult queen honeybee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (Steinhaus and Martignoni).

envelope, a sheath of carton or wax surrounding the nest of a social insect, especially that of a social wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) (Wilson).

eonymph, in Symphyta (Hymenoptera), the last larval instar (Hinton and Mackerras, in CSIRO); see prepupa.

epicnemial carina, in many adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), a ridge that more or less parallels the anterior margin of the mesepisternum (Gauld and Bolton).

epicnemium, in many adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), portion of mesepisternum anterior to epicnemial carina (Gibson; Gauld and Bolton).

epidermal layer, in galls of Cynipidae (Hymenoptera), the outer covering of the gall, including the fairly normal epidermis and all the abnormal developments from it; largely naked or at most with stellate hairs (T-B, after Kinsey).

epinotal spines, in adult Myrmecinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), spines on epinotum which protect the pedicel (T-B, after W. M. Wheeler).

epinotum, in adult Hymenoptera, propodeum, q.v. (T-B, after Comstock; Gauld and Bolton); the dorsal aspect of the pronotum (T-B, after MacGillivray).

epipharyngeal sclerite, in larval Muscomorpha (Diptera: Brachycera), fenestrated sclerite lying above the anterior margin of the hypopharyngeal sclerite (Teskey, in McAlpine); in bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), a pair of straplike pieces extending backward from the 2 sides of the base of the epipharynx (T-B); see hypopharyngeal sclerite.

epipygium (pl., epipygia), in adult Hymenoptera, the tergite of the last abdominal segment (T-B; Gauld and Bolton); see epiproct and hypopygium.

episternal scrobe, in virtually all adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), a small pit on mesepisternum, slightly before the epimeron and about one-third of its length down (Gauld and Bolton).

episternal sulcus, in adult Vespidae (Hymenoptera), dorsal part of scrobal sulcus (Carpenter, pers. comm., after Bohert and Merke).

epomia, in some adult Hymenoptera, keel located laterally along transverse furrow of pronotum, receiving the front femur (T-B; Gauld and Bolton).

eremosymbiont, a species living in an ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) nest, neither taking nor receiving nor contributing to the society, but living in it for protection (Tulloch).

ergatandromorph, an ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) which combines some of the characteristics of both and worker (T-B; Leftwich).

ergatandrous, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), having workerlike males (T-B).

ergataner, a ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) resembling a worker, because it has lost its wings (T-B; Leftwich).

ergate, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), worker, q.v. (T-B; Leftwich).

ergatogynandromorph, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a mosaic form combining qualities of the and worker (Tulloch).

ergatogyne, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), any form morphologically intermediate between the worker and the queen (T-B; Wilson).

ergatogynous, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), having ergatogynes (T-B).

ergatoid, in Isoptera, ergatoid reproductive, q.v. (Krishna, pers. comm.); in Formicidae (Hymenoptera), ergatogyne, q.v. (T-B; Brown and Taylor, in CSIRO).

ergatoid male, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), ergatomorphic male, q.v. (Wilson).

ergatoid reproductive, in Isoptera, a supplementary reproductive without a trace of wing buds, usually larval in external form, and with a distinctively rounded head, derived in one or 2 moults from the worker (Miller; Noirot; Wilson).

ergatomorphic male, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), an individual with normal genitalia, and a workerlike body (Wilson).

eruciform larva, larva resembling a caterpillar or polypod larva in form or appearance, i.e., having a fleshy body, a thin skin, and prolegs or cushion-feet on the abdomen, e.g., larvae of Symphyta (Hymenoptera) (T-B; Leftwich; Gauld and Bolton).

eucephalous larva, an apodous larva with a well-developed head capsule, e.g., Nematocera (Diptera), Coleoptera (Buprestidae and Cerambycidae), and Aculeata (Hymenoptera) (T-B; Chapman); see acephalous larva and hemicephalous larva.

eucoiliform larva, in Hymenoptera with a hypermetamorphosis, e.g., Eucoilidae, a primary larva with 3 pairs of long thoracic appendages and without the cephalic process and girdle of setae of the teleaform larva (T-B, after Imms); a stage in which a fairly advanced protopod larva emerges from the egg (T-B, after Wardle; Gauld and Bolton).

Evanioidea, superfamily within the suborder Apocrita (Hymenoptera), including the families Evaniidae, Aulacidae, and Gasteruptiidae, including adult flies with a hind wing lacking closed cells, pronotum without a dorsal surface in median area extending back above tegulae, no subantennal groove, and spurs on hind tibia not modified for preening (Riek, in CSIRO).

examinium, in adult Hymenoptera, ventral ptyche, q.v. (Tuxen, after Ross).

exodont mandibles, in some adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), e.g., Mymarommatidae, Vanhoriidae, and some Braconidae, spatulate and outcurved mandibles (Gauld and Bolton).

exploratory trail, an odor trail laid more or less continuously by the advance workers of a foraging group, being a kind of communication used regularly by army ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (Wilson); see recruitment trail.

exterior paramere, in Hymenoptera, gonostylus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Priesner).

external area, in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), the upper of the 3 areas of the propodeum, between the median and lateral longitudinal carinae (T-B); see area.

external median area, in Hymenoptera, the median of the 3 areas between the median and lateral longitudinal carinae; the second lateral area (T-B).

exudatoria, in Pseudomyrminae among ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and in certain termites (Isoptera), special papillae or appendages in the larva which exude a secretion highly acceptable to their adult worker nurses (T-B, after Imms); fingerlike appendages found on the larvae of certain ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and on a variety of termitophiles, presumably producing secretions attractive to ant or termite (Isoptera) workers (Wilson).

face, in adult Diptera, anterior frons below the antennae, bounded laterally by the compound eyes and ventrally by the frontoclypeal suture, or if this is absent, by the level of the anterior tentorial pits (T-B or anterior margin of the oral cavity, after Curran; Colless and McAlpine, in CSIRO; McAlpine); the upper or outer surface of any part or appendage; the front of the head between the compound eyes about the mouth to the vertex, usually being applied to insects in which the head is vertical (T-B); in Ephemeroptera, a fusion of the front and the vertex; in adult Hymenoptera, the area between the mouth margin and the median ocellus (T-B; Gauld and Bolton).

facial fovea, in adult bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), a depressed area lateral of torulus in the perocular area (Eickwort, pers. comm., after Michener).

facial orbits, in adult Hymenoptera, the lateral margins of the lower face adjacent to the eyes (T-B, after MacGillivray; Gauld and Bolton); see frontal orbits.

facial quadrangle, in bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), the quadrangle bounded laterally by the eyes, above by a line between their summits and below by a similar line between their lower points (T-B).

fecal pellets, in Kalotermitidae and Termopsidae (Isoptera), dessicated feces in the form of hexagonal prisms, which correspond to the shape of the rectum (Krishna, pers. comm.).

felt line, in most adult Mutillidae and Bradynobaenidae (Hymenoptera), a narrow longitudinal band of relatively dense, closely appressed hairs, close to and parallel with the lateral margin of abdominal tergum 3 (Borror et al.; Gauld and Bolton).

fenestra (pl., fenestrae), a window (T-B; R. W. Brown); a transparent glassy spot or mark (T-B); windowlike perforations in a membrane (T-B); a pellucid mark in a wing vein, commonly marking a wing fold (T-B; Gauld and Bolton); in Odonata, the genital opening on the ventral surface of abdominal segment II (Tuxen); in Blattaria, a small, pale, membranous area at the base of the antennae (T-B); in Isoptera, fontanelle, q.v. (T-B).

first discoidal cell (DC1), in adult Hymenoptera, closed cell in middle of wing behind Rs + M (Gauld and Bolton).

first-form reproductive, in Isoptera, primary reproductive, q.v. (Miller; Wilson).

first gonapophysis, in Hymenoptera, volsella, q.v. (Tuxen, after Rohwer).

first inner apical nervure, in adult Hymenoptera, short second branch of cubitus anterior (Cu2), extending to first anal vein (1A) (T-B, after Norton).

first submarginal cross-nervure, in adult Hymenoptera, part of the media (M) and the radio-medial cross vein (T-B, after Comstock).

first valves, in Thysanoptera, ventral blades of ovipositor (Tuxen); first gonapophyses q.v. (Tuxen); in Isoptera, ventral valves, q.v. (Tuxen).

flabellum, a fanlike or leaflike process (T-B; Borror et al.); in bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), a spoonlike lobe at the tip of the ligula (T-B; Leftwich).

fling mechanism, flight mechanism producing thrust, in which the wings are clapped together at the top of the upstroke followed by rapid promotion of the leading edges of the wings, separating which the posterior parts remain in contact, sucking air into the increasing gap between the upper surfaces of the wings creating bound vortices around the edges, e.g., in the chalcid wasp Encarsia (Hymenoptera) (Chapman, after Weis-Fogh).

flocculus (pl., flocculi), a hairy or bristly appendage on the posterior coxa of some Hymenoptera (T-B).

fontanelle, in soldier Termitidae and Rhinotermitidae (Isoptera), pore on the frontal region of the head though which exude secretions of the frontal gland (T-B; Gay, in CSIRO); in some Zoraptera, the frontal opening of the fontanelle gland or cephalic gland (Paulian).

fontannelle plate, in Termitidae (Isoptera) a raised area on top of the head where the fontanelle is located (Weesner, in Krishna and Weesner).

forceps (pl., forcipes), pincers or claspers at the apex of the abdomen of certain insects, either for clasping by in copulation or in defense (T-B; Leftwich); in Protura, periphallus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Prell); in Ephemeroptera, gonostyles, q.v. (Tuxen, after Palmén); in Dermaptera, (pincerlike) cerci, q.v. (T-B; Tuxen); in Blattopteroidea, phallus, q.v. (Tuxen); in Psyllidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), a pair of appendages on posterior part of hypandrium (Tuxen); in Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera), styles, q.v. (Tuxen, after Caldwell); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), parameres, q.v. (Tuxen, after Strawinski); in Pentatomoidea (Eusthenes) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Tessaratomidae), secondary processes of the various phallic segments (Tuxen, after Handlirsch), i.e. processus phallothecae and processus conjunctivae, q.v.; in Coleoptera, aedeagus, q.v. (Tuxen); in Lepidoptera, process of sacculus (Tuxen, after Bastelberger) or valvae, q.v. (Tuxen, after Cholodkowsky); in Diptera, surstyli (claspers) gonopods, q.v. (Tuxen) or cerci, q.v. (Tuxen, after Böttcher); in Hymenoptera, gonocoxites + penis valves (Tuxen, after Konow); see forceps; in Hymenoptera, gonocoxite, q.v. (Tuxen, after Dufour), distal parts of gonocoxites + gonostyli (Tuxen, after Hartig), gonocoxites + gonostyli + volsellae (Tuxen, after Radoszkowski), or gonobase + gonocoxite + gonostylus (Tuxen, after Rohwer); see forcipes.

forked sclerite, in Hymenoptera, detached notum, q.v. (Tuxen, after Richards).

formic, of, pertaining to or derived from ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (T-B).

formic acid, simple aliphatic acid, HCO2H, used in defense, produced in the venom glands of ants of the subfamily Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (T-B; Gilmour, in CSIRO).

formicary, an ant nest (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (T-B); an artificial nest used in the laboratory to house ants (Wilson).

Formicoidea, superfamily within the Aculeata (Hymenoptera: Apocrita), including only the family Formicidae (ants), social species characterized by a wingless worker caste, often possessing a metapleural gland, and with one or 2 segments of abdomen nodiform or scalelike (pedicel) and sharply marked off from remainder (gaster) (Brown and Taylor, in CSIRO); included within the Vespoidea (sensu Gauld and Bolton, after Brothers).

fossoria, burrowers; in Orthoptera, the mole crickets and allies (Gryllotalpidae); in Hymenoptera, the digging wasps (T-B).

frenal area, in adult Chalcididae (Hymenoptera), sclerite behind the mesoscutellum (Gauld and Bolton); see mesopostnotum.

frons basalis, in Hymenoptera, ventral gonocoxal bridge, q.v. (Tuxen, after Beck).

frontal area, in Hymenoptera, the region of the head located between the antennal furrows, the frontal crest and the ocellar furrow (T-B); in ants, a small demarcated usually triangular space in the midline just above or back of the clypeus (T-B, after Wheeler).

frontal carina (pl., frontal carinae), a longitudinal ridge on the frons, mesad of the antennae in some adult Hymenoptera (e.g., Formicidae), ridgelike posterior extension of frontal lobe onto frons (Gauld and Bolton; Borror et al.); see frontal ridge.

frontal crest, in some adult Hymenoptera, an elevation extending across the head just above the toruli, usually being limited on each side by the antennal furrows, but sometimes extending across the antennal furrows nearly to the margin of the compound eyes; frequently interrupted by the median fovea, when it is said to be broken (T-B).

frontal gland, in soldier termites of the Rhinotermitidae and Termitidae (esp. Nasutitermitinae) (Isoptera), a large median gland beneath the integument of the head, opening by a median pore, which produces a milky defense secretion and an alarm pheromone (T-B; Chapman); see nasute soldier.

frontal lobe(s), in Psyllidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), 2 lobes or swellings more or less completely divided by a suture in which an ocellus is situated; in some adult Hymenoptera (e.g., Formicidae), a cuticular outgrowth, projecting over torulus, partially or entirely shielding the antennal articulation (Gauld and Bolton).

frontal ocellus, in Isoptera, fontanelle, q.v. (T-B).

frontal orbits, in adult Diptera, fronto-orbital plates, q.v. (T-B, after Curran); in adult Hymenoptera, lateral margins of frons adjacent to the compound eyes (T-B, after MacGillivray; Gauld and Bolton); see facial orbits.

frontal organ, in Lepismatidae (Zygentoma), a median structure on the frons representing reduced median and lateral ocelli (Watson, in CSIRO); in Isoptera, fontanelle, q.v. (Gay, in CSIRO).

frontal pore, in Isoptera, fontanelle, q.v. (Leftwich).

frontal tubercle(s), in Isoptera, nasus, q.v. (T-B); in certain Aphididae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), the raised structure upon which the antennae are placed (T-B, after J. B. Smith); in adult Chironomidae (Diptera), pair of small lobes just above the antennae probably representing remains of reduced ocelli (Saether).

frontoparietal region, in larval Symphyta (Hymenoptera), dorsal region of epicranium lateral to the frontal sutures (Gauld and Bolton).

fulcral plate, in Hymenoptera, gonangulum, q.v. (T-B; Tuxen).

fulcrum (pl., fulcra), a prop or support (T-B); in entognathous hexapods (Protura, Collembola, and Diplura), a Y-shaped sclerite within the head, corresponding to the posterior tentorial arms of the Ectognatha (Wallace and Mackerras, after Manton, in CSIRO); in Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera), sclerotized medioventral support for aedoeagus and part of fultura inferior (Tuxen, after Bethune-Baker); in Siphonaptera, apodemal strut, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in adult Muscomorpha (Diptera), U-shaped clypeus and skeleton of cibarial pump (McAlpine); in Chironomidae (Diptera), pivot of gonocoxite IX against knob on gonocoxapodeme (Saether); in adult Chironomidae (Diptera), cibarial pump, q.v. (Saether); in larval Chironomidae (Diptera), supporting apodemes of premento-hypopharyngeal complex (Saether); in Hymenoptera, tergite IX (Symphyta) or combined gonocoxites IX (Aculeata); in Lepidoptera, juxta, q.v (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).

fungus comb, in nests of Macrotermitinae (Isoptera: Termitidae), a spongy, dark reddish-brown material made by the workers from the excreta, on which they make their fungus beds (Thorne, pers. comm.).

fungus cultivation, cultivation of fungi as food by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and termites (Isoptera) (Leftwich).

fungus garden, a special chamber in the nest in which certain ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmecinae: Attini) cultivate fungi for food (T-B; Brown, in Parker); in Macrotermitinae (Isoptera: Termitidae), fungus comb, q.v. (T-B).

funicle, that part of the flagellum of the antenna proximal to the club (T-B, after Comstock; Riek, in CSIRO), in insects with geniculate antennae, e.g. Curculionidae (Coleoptera) and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), funicle + pedicel (Britton, Riek, in CSIRO; Borror et al.).

funicular joint, in Hymenoptera, any joint of the funicle, q.v. (T-B).

furcula (Latin), a forked process (T-B); in Collembola, the more or less forked spring or leaping appendage borne on the fourth abdominal segment (T-B; Wallace and Mackerras, in CSIRO); in Orthoptera, a pair of backwardly directed appendages which overlie in a more or less forked position the base of the supraanal plate (T-B); in larval Papilionidae (Lepidoptera), osmeterium, q.v. (T-B); in Hymenoptera, detached notum, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).


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