The Social Insects Glossary

This glossary of entomological terms is based on Torre Bueno's Glossary, from which all terms relevant to ants, wasps, bees and termites where extracted.

  A | B - F | G - M | N - P | Q - U | V - Z  

galea (pl., galeae), the outer lobe of the maxilla, usually two-jointed, often hoodlike, subject to great modifications in Hymenoptera and Diptera, and joined to form the proboscis in adult Glossata (Lepidoptera) (T-B, after J. B. Smith, Tillyard); in adult Diptera, maxillary blade, q.v. (McAlpine, after authors).

galearia, in adult Hymenoptera, the setiferous lobe of the basigalea (T-B, after MacGillivray).

gall wasp, a member of the family Cynipidae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea) which causes gall formation in plants (T-B; Leftwich).

gamergate, in many Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), fertilized, ovipositing worker that assumes the reproductive function of the queen caste (Brown, pers. comm., after Peters); see gynecoid.

gaster, in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), the swollen part of the abdomen behind the waist, including abdominal segments III (or IV) through X and always excluding the propodeum (Chapman; Brown, pers. comm.); see metasoma.

gastric, belonging to the midgut (T-B); in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), of or pertaining to the gaster (T-B).

gastrocoeli, in some adult Hymenoptera, thyrdida, q.v. (T-B; Riek, in CSIRO).

gathering hairs, the soft, flattened, often hooked hairs on the tongue of bees (Apoidea) and other Hymenoptera (T-B).

genal bridge, in some adult Hymenoptera, bridge formed posterior to labium by the fusion of the genae (Gauld and Bolton); see hypostomal bridge and postgenal bridge.

genal carina, in adult Hymenoptera, carina delimiting postgena posterior to base of mandible (Gauld and Bolton).

genal sulcus, in adult Hymenoptera, molar sulcus, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

geniculate, geniculatus (Latin), knee-jointed, i.e., abruptly bent in an obtuse angle, e.g., as in the antennae of an ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (T-B; Leftwich).

genital cavity, in and Plecoptera, genital chamber, q.v. (Tuxen, after Brinck); in Isoptera, vestibulum, q.v. (Tuxen, after Walker); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), genital chamber, q.v. (Tuxen, after Christophers and Cragg; in Lepidoptera, the cavity enclosed by the valvae (Tuxen, after Gosse).

genital chamber, in some insects, ventral invagination between abdominal sterna IX and X containing phallic organs (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in Protura, invagination between abdominal sterna XI and XII containing phallic organs (Tuxen); in Caelifera (Orthoptera), cavity formed by paraprocts, pallium, and subgenital plate (Tuxen; Chapman, after Uvarov); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), the concavity of the pygophore, separated from the general body cavity by the diaphragm, and including the anal tube, phallus and parameres (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in some insects, copulatory invagination cavity caudad of or above sternum VIII containing the gonopore and orifice of the spermatheca, often narrowed to form a tubular or pouchlike vagina (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in Isoptera, vestibulum, q.v. (Tuxen); in Orthoptera, cavity between the subgenital plate, ventral body wall and anterior valvulae (Tuxen); in Dermaptera, chamber into which the common oviduct as well as the spermatheca and rectum open, formed by sterna VIII and IX dorsally (Tuxen, after Nel); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), vagina, q.v. (Tuxen, after Bonhag and Wick); in Lepidoptera, sinus vaginalis, q.v. (Tuxen); in Siphonaptera, camera genitalis, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in Diptera, pouchlike or tubular chamber within the genital opening between abdominal segments VIII and IX (McAlpine); in Chironomidae (Diptera), vagina, q.v. (Saether).

genital cover, in Hymenoptera, abdominal sterna VIII and IX (transl. "couvercle génital" Radoszkowski, after Tuxen).

genital foramen, in Hymenoptera, opening in gonobase by which lumen of genitalia communicates with body cavity (Tuxen, after Michener).

genital membrane, in Hymenoptera, remnant of the gonosternite forming a fold into which the ovipositor or sting is withdrawn (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith).

genital plate(s), in Collembola, papilla genitalis, q.v. (Tuxen, after K. Christiansen); in Collembola, abdominal sternum V, anterior to genital opening (Tuxen); in Plecoptera, subgenital plate, q.v. (Tuxen, after Needham and Claassen); in Isoptera, hypogynium, q.v. (Tuxen, after Fuller); in Phthiraptera, subgenital plate, q.v. (Tuxen); in Psyllidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), hypandrium, q.v. (Tuxen) or proctiger (Tuxen, after Edwards); in Psyllidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), ventral plate, q.v., or dorsal plate, q.v. (Tuxen); in Aphididae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), sternum VIII (Tuxen); in Cicadomorpha (Auchenorrhyncha) and some Enicocephalidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) (Hemiptera), a pair of usually horizontal, sometimes two-segmented plates posteroventral to abdominal sternum IX (Tuxen; Stys); in Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), superior lateral process, q.v. (Tuxen, after Baker); in Sialis (Megaloptera: Sialidae), gonarcus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Ross); in Coleoptera, hemisternites, q.v. (Tuxen, after Wilson); in Lepidoptera, sterigma, q.v. (Tuxen, after Pierce); in Mecoptera, medigynium, q.v. (Tuxen, after Byers); in Hymenoptera, abdominal sternum VIII (transl. "Genitalplatte" Enslin, after Tuxen).

genital styles, in Ephemeroptera, genostyles, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crass); in nymphs and most of Blattaria and Isoptera, styli, q.v., of abdominal segment IX (T-B; Alsop, pers. comm., after McKittrick); in Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera), styles, q.v. (Tuxen, after China).

genitoanal chamber, in Aculeata (Hymenoptera), the chamber in which lie the ovipositor or the genitalia and the anal tube or proctiger (Tuxen, after Michener).

geraniol, an alcohol formed from geranial, being a constituent of oil of orange-rind, cheap oil of lemon grass, and oil of citron (T-B); pheromone deposited by honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), to mark an abundant source of nectar (Gilmour, in CSIRO).

glandubae, in larval Symphyta (Hymenoptera), cutaneous glands, sessil or stalked, provided with sclerotized rings about their external opening (Peterson, after Yuasa).

glossa (pl., glossae), tongue (T-B; R. W. Brown); inner pair of lobes at apex of prementum of labium (T-B, after Tillyard; Chapman, after Snodgrass); in adult Lepidoptera, proboscis, q.v. (T-B); in larval Chironomidae (Diptera), ligula, q.v. (Saether); in adult Hymenoptera, median lobe at the apex of the prementum (Gauld and Bolton); see ligula and paraglossa.

glume(s), in adults of many Chalcidoidea, Cynipoidea, and Proctotrupoidea (Hymenoptera), longitudinal ridges on flagellar segments of antenna (Riek, in CSIRO); see tyloid.

glymmae, in some adult Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera: Apocrita), lateral foveae between the base and spiracles of the petiole (abdominal segment II) (Riek, in CSIRO; Gauld and Bolton).

gonapophysis VIII, in Hymenoptera, first gonapophyses, q.v., forming the moving component of the ovipositor or sting (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith; Gauld and Bolton); in Chironomidae (Diptera), hypogynial valves, q.v. (Saether).

gonapophysis IX, in Hymenoptera, mesal appendage (endite or exite) on gonocoxite IX forming the intromittent organ, rotated and primitively fused with gonapophysis IX on the opposite side (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith); in Hymenoptera, segmented mesal appendage (endite or exite) on gonocoxite IX, rotated 180° laterally on the long axis and fused with the opposite one along the new dorsal margin (notum) (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith); in Chironomidae (Diptera), vaginal apodeme, q.v. (Saether).

gongylidium (pl., gongylidia), swollen hyphal tips of symbiotic fungi cultivated and fed upon by Attini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (Wilson).

gonobase, in Climaciella (Planipennia: Mantispidae), gonarcus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Michener); in Hymenoptera, basal ring, q.v. (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith).

gonocardo, in Hymenoptera, basal ring, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton).

gonocondyle, in Hymenoptera, apodeme of gonobase, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton).

gonocoxal apodeme, in Hymenoptera, anterior, often fused, apodeme of gonocoxites, extending into concavity of the gonobase (Tuxen, after Rozen); in Nematocera and orthorrhaphous Diptera, conspicuous internal process of the gonocoxite (McAlpine).

gonocoxal arms, in Hymenoptera, ventrobasal prolongations of gonocoxites which, if fused, form the ventral gonocoxal bridge (Tuxen, after Peck).

gonocoxal bridges, in Hymenoptera, basal sclerotic bridges between gonocoxites, a ventral and a dorsal one (Tuxen, after Michener).

gonocoxite(s), the coxites of the gonopods (Tuxen); in Archaeognatha, Zygentoma, and Grylloblattodea, gonocoxae, q.v. (Tuxen); in Coleoptera, basal piece, q.v. (Tuxen, after Michener); in Neuroptera and Mecoptera, basal segment of gonapophyses of abdominal segment IX (Tuxen); in Climaciella (Planipennia: Mantispidae), paramere, q.v. (Tuxen, after Michener); in Diptera, basistylus, q.v. (Tuxen); in Hymenoptera, basal segment of outer clasper, i.e., gonocoxopodite minus gonobase, volsella and penis valve (Tuxen); in Hymenoptera, gonoforceps, q.v. (Tuxen, after Michener); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), 4 plates or blades, 2 from abdominal segment VIII, 2 from abdominal segment IX, articulating on corresponding laterotergites and bearing gonapophyses (Tuxen, after Rawat); in Chrysopidae (Planipennia), gonapophyses laterales, q.v. (Tuxen, after Adams).

gonocoxite IX, in insects, coxite of abdominal segment IX, detached from tergum, rearticulated to sternum IX, uniting mesally and separating transversely forming the gonobase (Section 1), gonocoxite (Section 2) and volsella (Section 3), the latter attached to each other basally (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith); in insects, coxite of abdominal segment IX, derived from union of subcoxa, coxa, and part of coxosternite, primitively articulated to tergum IX, but shifted to the ventral margin of gonocoxite VIII in Hymenoptera (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), gonocoxite of abdominal segment IX, frequently provided with styloids (Tuxen, after Rawat); in Diptera, basistylus, q.v. (McAlpine); in Chironomidae (Diptera), sclerite on segment IX, articulating along dorsal edge with ninth tergum and connected dorsoventrally to coxosternapodeme, sometimes being fused with tergum IX to form gonotergite IX, q.v. (Saether).

gonocoxopodite(s), coxopodite of abdominal segment IX, consisting of a coxite (the gonocoxite), a stylus (the gonostylus), and an inner process (the volsella) (Harbach and Knight); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), gonocoxites VIII and IX, q.v. (Tuxen, after Davis); in adult Hymenoptera, coxal portions of gonopods, in including gonobase, gonocoxite, volsella and penis valve (Tuxen, after Michener).

gonoforceps (pl., gonoforcipes), in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), parameres, q.v. (Tuxen, after Michener); in Hymenoptera, a morphologically noncommital term meaning gonocoxite alone or indistinguishably fused with gonostylus (Tuxen, after Michener).

gonolacinia, in Hymenoptera, digitus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Peck).

gonomacula, in Hymenoptera, cupping disk, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton).

gonopore, the external opening of a genital duct, i.e., ductus ejaculatorius () or oviductus communis (), or primitively one of the paired apertures of the vasa deferentia () or the lateral oviducts (); (T-B, after Snodgrass; Tuxen); in Orthoptera, Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera), and Hymenoptera, phallotrema, q.v. (Tuxen); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), secondary gonopore, q.v. (Tuxen); in Coleoptera, vulva, q.v. (Tuxen).

gonosiculus, in Hymenoptera, digitus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton).

gonosquama, in Hymenoptera, paramere, q.v. (Tuxen, after Peck).

gonostipes, in Mecoptera, gonocoxite or basal segment of genital style, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton); in Diptera, basistylus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Cole), or gonocoxite, q.v. (McAlpine); in Hymenoptera, gonocoxite, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton).

gonostipital arms, in Hymenoptera, gonocoxal arms, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton).

gonostylus (pl., gonostyli), stylus of a genital segment (Tuxen); in insects, stylus of the ninth segment, generally modified to form the clasping organ (T-B, after Snodgrass); in Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera), styles, q.v. (Tuxen); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), paramere(s), q.v. (Tuxen, after Bonhag and Wick); in Agulla (Raphidioptera: Raphidiidae), stylus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Michener); in Mecoptera, stylus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton); in Diptera, dististylus, q.v. (Tuxen); in Coleoptera, paramere, q.v. (Tuxen, after Michener); in Hymenoptera, paramere, q.v. (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith); in Telmatogetoninae (Diptera: Chironomidae), long, tapering appendage with narrow apodeme of reduced gonocoxite IX, forming an antovipositor together with the cerci, gonapophyses VIII and posterior extensions of tergite IX (Saether); in Hymenoptera, gonoplac (Tuxen, after Michener).

group predation, the hunting and retreiving of living prey by groups of cooperating animals, a behavior best developed in army ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (Wilson).

grub, larva, q.v. (T-B); scarabaeiform larva, q.v. (Borror et al.); an apodous larva having a tiny head, few sense organs, and a fleshy, rounded body, e.g., larvae of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) and some Coleoptera (T-B; Peterson; Leftwich); see maggot.

gymnodomous, in social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), having a nest with exposed or uncovered combs, e.g., Polistes or Miscocyttarus (Tulloch, after Bequaert); see calyptodomous.

gymnogastra, in Hymenoptera, species in which the venter is visible (T-B); see cryptogastra.

gynaecaner, a ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which resembles the and has the same number of antennal articles (T-B).

gyne, in Hymenoptera, queen, q.v. (T-B; Michener).

gynecoid, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), gamergate, q.v. (T-B).

gynephore, in Cynipidae (Hymenoptera), a parthenogenetic that lays only eggs (Gauld and Bolton); see androphore.

gynergate, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a mosaic form combining worker and queen characteristics (Tulloch); a containing patches of tissue of both the queen and worker castes (Wilson).

habitacle, in Isoptera, the distinct, central part of the epigeous nest, also referred to as the nursery or hive (Noirot, in Krishna and Weesner).

hamuli (sing., hamulus), in Odonata, hamuli anteriores and hamuli posteriores, q.v. (Tuxen) or hamular hook, q.v. (Tuxen, after Asahina); in tree crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Oecanthinae), hooklike processes of the genitalia (T-B, after J. B. Smith); in Siphonaptera, crochets, q.v. (Tuxen, after Barrera); in adult Hymenoptera, hooks in a row along the costal margin of the hind wing which catch into a fold of the forewing to couple wings in flight (T-B; Chapman); in Hymenoptera, parameres, q.v. (Tuxen, after Radoszkowski) or gonocoxites + gonostyli + volsellae (Tuxen, after Radoszkowski); see hamulus.

haplodiploidy, the mode of sex determination in which males are derived from haploid eggs and females from diploid eggs, characteristic of Hymenoptera, many Thysanoptera, Acari and some other groups, e.g., Micromalthus (Coleoptera: Micromalthidae) (Wilson; Chapman; Eickwort, pers. comm.).

haplometrosis, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), the founding of a new colony by a single fertile (Tulloch).

harpe(s), in Lepidoptera, distinct part of valva bearing one or more processes (Tuxen, after Sibatani et al.); in Noctuidae and Geometridae (Lepidoptera) the ventrocaudal part of the valva, caudad of the sacculus (Tuxen); in Rhopalocera (Lepidoptera), the cucullus and valvula having been lost, the ventrodistal, sometimes nearly the whole distal, part of the valva (Tuxen), also applied to total armature of the inner face of the valva (Tuxen, after Rothschild and Jordan) or to the entire valva, q.v. (Tuxen, after J. B. Smith); in Diptera, dististylus, q.v. (Tuxen; Saether), postgonites, q.v. (Tuxen), gonopods, q.v. (Tuxen, after Lindner), or parameres, q.v. (McAlpine); in Culicidae (Diptera), processes of tergum X (Tuxen, after Howard, Dyar and Knab); in Muscomorpha (Diptera), surstyli, q.v. (Tuxen); in Calliphoridae (Diptera), paraphallus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Zumpt and Heinz); in Hymenoptera, gonostylus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton); see harpago.

harvesting ants, ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) that store seeds in their nests (Wilson).

heel, in Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera), angular median corner of the foot of the style (Tuxen, after Young); in certain larval Coleoptera, a padlike prolongation of the base of the tarsungulus, opposing the claw (Peterson); in Siphonaptera, calx, q.v. (Tuxen, after Jordan); in adult Hymenoptera, tibial spur, q.v. (T-B).

hemitergites, divided halves of abdominal tergum IX or X in some adult insects (Mackerras, in CSIRO); in Embiidina, the 2 parts into which abdominal tergum X is divided (T-B, after Tillyard; Tuxen); in adult Hymenoptera, lateral remnants of abdominal terga (Tuxen, after Michener).

hemizygous, applied to individual with only a haploid chromosome number, e.g., most Hymenoptera (Gauld and Bolton); see haploid.

hesmosis, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), colony fission, q.v. (Wilson).

Heterogyna, the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae); referring to the different kinds of females (queens and workers), as distinguished from males.

heteronomous hyperparastioid, in Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera), species in which the develops as a hyperparasitoid of one host while the develops as a normal parasitoid on another host (Gauld and Bolton, after Walter); see diphagous parasitoid and heterotrophic parasitoid.

heteronomous parasitoid, in Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera), a species of parasitoid exhibiting heteronomy (Gauld and Bolton); see diphagous parasitoid, heterotrophic parasitoid, and heteronomous hyperparasitoid.

heteronomy, in Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera), the condition of having host relationships that differ from host relationships within the same species (Gauld and Bolton, after Flanders).

heterotrophic parasitoid, in Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera), a species in which the is a parasitoid of a different host species than the famale, e.g., Encarsia lutea (Gauld and Bolton, after Stoner and Butler); see diphagous parasitoid and heteronomous hyperparasitoid.

Hick's bottles, on antennae of bees and ants (Hymenoptera: Aculeata), campaniform sensilla, q.v. (T-B).

histriobdellid larva, in some Mymaridae (Hymenoptera), cylindrical second instar larva divided into 6 segments, the first and last being the largest, and often bearing paired fleshy processes (Gauld and Bolton, after Jackson).

hive odor, nest odor of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) (Wilson).

Holometabola, insects which pass through a complete metamorphosis in which the larva is very different from the adult and does not become more like the adult, but transforms dramatically by means of a pupal stage, being equivalent to Endopterygota or endopterygote orders, including Megaloptera, Raphidioptera, Planipennia, Mecoptera, Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Strepsiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Siphonaptera (T-B, after Imms; Leftwich; Mackerras, in CSIRO); see Ametabola, Hemimetabola and Paurometabola.

honey, the thickened and partly digested nectar of flowers, containing a very high concentration of sugars, produced by various bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) and used as food for the larvae (T-B; Chapman); see poisoned honey.

honey bee, a member of the genus Apis (Hymenoptera: Apidae) or more particularly a member of the domestic species A. mellifera, being usually applied to the worker caste (Wilson).

honey pot, honeypot, an individual wax cell for the storage of honey, found in the nests of bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (Tulloch, after Gaul); a container made by stingless bees or bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from soft cerumen and used to store honey (Wilson).

honey stomach, in aculeate Hymenoptera, a dilation of the oesophagous into a thin-walled crop, serving as a reservoir for liquids (T-B, after Imms); in the honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the crop in which nectar is mixed with enzymes from the salivary glands and converted to honey before being disgorged (Leftwich).

honey stopper, a valve at the posterior end of a bee's (Hymenoptera: Apidea), crop, specialized for preventing the passage of nectar into the stomach (Leftwich); see stomodaeal valve.

hooked hairs, in adult Hymenoptera, gathering hairs, q.v. (T-B).

hornet, a large wasp of the subfamily Vespinae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), particularly a member of the genus Vespa or (in the United States) the bald-faced hornet Vespula (Dolichovespula) maculata (Wilson).

horny ring, in Hymenoptera, basal ring, q.v. (Tuxen, after Newport).

humeral suture, in Odonata, the suture running from just in front of the base of the forewing to the edge of the midcoxa, separating the mesepisternum from the mesepimeron (T-B); in termites (Isoptera), basal suture, q.v. (T-B).

humerus (pl., humeri), shoulder (T-B; R. W. Brown); in Orthoptera, femur of the front leg (T-B); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), the posterolateral angle of the pronotum (T-B; Borror et al.); in adult Coleoptera, the basal exterior angle of the elytra (T-B); in adult Diptera, postpronotal lobe, q.v. (T-B; McAlpine); in adult Hymenoptera, subcosta, q.v., of wing or anterolateral angle of the pronotum (T-B; Brown, pers. comm.).

hymenopteriform larva, in Apocrita (Hymenoptera), eucephalous larva, q.v., (Gauld and Bolton).

Hymenopteroidea, supraordinal group within the Holometabola, including only the Hymenoptera (Mackerras, in CSIRO).

hypandrium (pl., hypandria), in insects, subgenital plate, q.v. (T-B, after Crampton; Tuxen); in Ephemeroptera, styliger, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton); in Isoptera, subgenital plate, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton); in Plecoptera, subgenital plate, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton); in Embiidina, subgenital plate, q.v. (Ross, in Tuxen); in Zoraptera, subgenital plate, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton); in Psocoptera, abdominal sternum IX, in some cases also abdominal sternum VIII, enclosing atrium genitale (Tuxen); in Thysanoptera, median part of abdominal sternum IX (Tuxen, after de Gryse and Treherne); in Psyllidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), subgenital plate, q.v. (Tuxen); in most Cicadelloidea (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha), genital valves + genital plates (Tuxen; L. O'Brien pers. comm.); in Cicadidae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha), boat-shaped abdominal sternite VIII below pygofer (Tuxen; L. O'Brien, pers. comm.); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), ventro-posterior margin of pygophore (abdominal segment IX) when protruded (Tuxen, after Crampton); in Veliidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), pygophore, q.v. (Tuxen, after Gould);

hypandrium (pl., hypandria), in Megaloptera and some Planipennia, abdominal sternum IX (Tuxen); in some Coniopterygidae (Planipennia), fused gonocoxites (Tuxen, after Tjeder); in Mecoptera, abdominal sternum IX (Tuxen, after Crampton); in Diptera, abdominal sternum IX (Tuxen, McAlpine); in Hymenoptera, any of last abdominal sterna VII, VIII or IX (Tuxen); in Hymenoptera, abdominal sternum IX (Tuxen, after Crampton).

hypermetamorphosis, development with successive larval forms having quite different forms, e.g., Strepsiptera, Mantispidae (Planipennia), Meloidae and some Staphylinidae (Coleoptera), Acroceridae, Bombyliidae, and Nemestrinidae (Diptera), Perilampidae and Eucharitidae (Hymenoptera), Epipyropidae and Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera), as well as in some other endoparasitic forms of Diptera and Hymenoptera (T-B, after Peterson; Chapman).

hyperparasite, a parasite that lives on or in another parasite, e.g., the minute Hemiteles (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) which is parasitic in the larger Apanteles (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), the latter itself being a parasite in caterpillars (T-B; Leftwich).

hyperparasitism, feeding by parasitoids on other parasitoids, e.g., many Chalcidoidea, Cynipoidea, Ichnenmonidae, Ceraphronoidea, and Trigonalyoidea (Hymenoptera) (Gauld and Bolton).

hypoclypeal depression, in some adult Braconidae (Hymenoptera), semicircular emargination of clypeus (Gauld and Bolton).

hypoepimeral area, in most adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), area on mesepisternum above the scrobal suture (Gauld and Bolton); see speculum.

hypogenum, in Isoptera, hypogynium, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton).

hypognathous, having the head vertical and the mouth directed ventrad, e.g., most exophagous Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera larvae (T-B; Peterson; Gauld and Bolton); see prognathous and hypognathous.

hypogynium (pl., hypogynia), in insects, sternum VIII (Tuxen, after Crampton; McAlpine); in Isoptera, subgenital plate, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton).

hypopharyngeal gland, in adult Hymenoptera, paired glands in the head with ducts opening at the base of the hypopharynx, being particularly well developed in worker honey bees (Apidae) in which they produce brood food and an invertase (Chapman, after Snodgrass).

hypopharyngeal sclerite(s), in larval Muscomorpha (Diptera: Brachycera), main part of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton lying between the mandibles and the tentoropharyngeal sclerite (Teskey, in McAlpine); in bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), a pair of straplike pieces along the hypopharynx to the mentum (T-B); see epipharyngeal sclerites.

hypopleural organ, in larvae of many Siricoidea (Hymenoptera: Symphyla), mycargium positioned laterally in the fold between abdominal segments I and II (Gauld and Bolton).

hypopleurite, the lower pleural plate when a pleuron is divided horizontally into 2 parts (T-B); in sawfly larvae (Hymenoptera: Symphyta), an enlarged area of a proleg immediately ventrad of the postepipleurite (Peterson).

hypopygial spine, in the genus Cynips (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), a spinous structure of the hypopygium (T-B).

hypopygidium, in Hymenoptera, sternum IX (Tuxen, after Enslin).

hypopygium (pl., hypopygia), in adult insects, hind part of abdomen (Tuxen); in Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera), pygofer, q.v. (Tuxen); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), pygophore, q.v. (Tuxen, after Sailer); in Lepidoptera, the most posterior sternum or fused sterna (Tuxen, after Kirby and Spence); in Strepsiptera, abdominal sternum IX (Tuxen, after Brues); in Diptera, abdominal segment IX, or more loosely used to include attached segments of postabdomen (Tuxen); in Diptera, genital segments, q.v. (Tuxen) or terminalia, q.v. (McAlpine); in adult Hymenoptera, last visible abdominal sternum, being sternum IX in and sternum VII in (Tuxen, after André; Gauld and Bolton).

hypostomal apodemes, in adult Masarinae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), projections from hypostoma into oral fossa (Carpenter, pers. comm., after Richards).

hypostomal carina, in adult Hymenoptera, ridge delimiting hypostoma laterally (Gauld and Bolton).

hypostomal spur, in larval Ichneumonoidea (Hymenoptera: Apocrita), sclerotize rod projecting ventrally from the hypostoma across the stipes (Gauld and Bolton, after Short).

hypotome, a structure in bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), between the volsella and penis (T-B, after Dufour); in Hymenoptera, abdominal sternum IX (Tuxen).

Ichneumonoidea, superfamily within the suborder Apocrita (Hymenoptera), including the Ichneumonidae, Apozygidae, Aphidiidae, Braconidae, Paxylommatidae and Agriotypidae, adults exhibiting fusion of veins C and Sc + R + Rs in the proximal part of the forewing with vertual obliteration of the costal cell and division of sternum I of the gaster (Gauld and Bolton, after Mason).

Idiogastra, suborder once proposed for the family Orussidae (Hymenoptera) (Gauld and Bolton, after Rohwer and Cushman); see Orussoidea.

imago (pl., imagines, imagos, or imagoes), the adult and sexually developed insect (T-B); in termites (Isoptera), pigmented, winged form which develops into a primary reproductive (Wilson; Thorne, pers. comm.).

inclivous vein, in adult Zelinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a transverse vein of which the anterior end is nearer to the wing base than its posterior end (van Achterberg); see reclivous vein.

infrabuccal chamber, in adult Formicidae (Hymenoptera), a sac below the floor of the mouth, opening into a short narrow canal, serving a variety of functions including food storage (T-B; Riek, in CSIRO).

inner claspers, in Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera), styles, q.v. (Tuxen, after McAtee); in Hymenoptera, volsellae, q.v. (Tuxen, after Beck) or parameres, q.v. (Tuxen, after Michener).

inner genital chamber, in Isoptera, inner vestibulum, q.v. (Tuxen, after Weesner).

inner paramere, in Hymenoptera, volsella, q.v. (Tuxen, after Priesner).

inner plates, in Hymenoptera, second gonocoxae, q.v. (Tuxen).

inner valve(s), in Isoptera, inner pair of valves borne on abdominal sternum IX (Tuxen); in Grylloblattodea, third valvulae, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton); in Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera), second gonapophyses, q.v. (Tuxen); in Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), median part of unpaired dorsal gonapophysis (Tuxen, after Deshpande).

inner valvulae, in Phasmida, Orthoptera, and Hemiptera (Auchenorrhyncha), second gonapophyses, q.v. (Tuxen); in Isoptera, inner valves, q.v. (Tuxen).

inner vestibulum, in Isoptera, inner (proximal or anterior) portion of vestibulum (genital chamber) where the latter is divided into inner and outer portions (Tuxen, after Roonwal).

inquiline, an animal living in the home of another and sharing its food, especially a guest or lodger in the nests of termites (Isoptera) and bees, ants, and wasps (Hymenoptera) (T-B, after Tillyard; Leftwich); an organism that lives on or within the body of another, or in its nest or abode, without benefit or damage to either (Steinhaus and Martignoni); see inquilinism.

insect society, in the strict sense, a colony of eusocial insects (ants, eusocial wasps, bees [Hymenoptera], or termites [Isoptera]); in the broad sense, any group of presocial or eusocial insects (Wilson).

intercaste, in social insects such as termites (Isoptera) and bees and ants (Hymenoptera), caste that is intermediate between the recognized castes (Leftwich).

intercostal vein, in adult Hymenoptera, subcosta, q.v. (Borror et al.).

intermediate moult, in Blattaria, Isoptera, Mantodea and Orthoptera, moult involving apolysis before hatching and the shedding of embryonic cuticle by the pharate first instar (pronymph) following hatching (Key, in CSIRO; Chapman; Alsop, pers. comm.).

intermediate valves, in Isoptera, second gonapophyses, q.v. (Tuxen).

internal area, in adult Hymenoptera, the posterior of the 3 areas between median and lateral longitudinal carinae on the metanotum; third lateral area (T-B).

internal cell, in adult Hymenoptera (Packard), the second anal of Comstock (T-B, after J. B. Smith).

internomandibular gland, in bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), mandibular gland, q.v. (T-B, after J. B. Smith).

interocellar furrow, in Hymenoptera, a short depressed line or space extending from middle of ocellar furrow to median ocellus, flaring out adjacent to median ocellus and frequently forming a depressed area surrounding the ocellus (T-B).

intersternal fold, in Isoptera, fold of intesegmental membrane between abdominal sterna VII and VIII near the beginning of the spermatic groove (Tuxen, after Imms).

intervalvula, in Hymenoptera, detached notum, q.v. (Tuxen, after Richards).

involucrum (Latin), case; envelope (R. W. Brown); a sheath of soft cerumen surrounding the brood chamber in a nest of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponinae) (Wilson).

ioterium, in adult Hymenoptera, poison gland or poison sac, q.v. (T-B, after Kirby and Spence).

Isle of Wight disease, in adult honeybees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), acarine disease, q.v., or disentery, q.v. (Steinhaus and Martignoni; Leftwich; Borror et al.).

jugal lobe, in Hymenoptera, a lobe at the base of the hind wing, on the posterior side, proximal to the claval lobe (T-B; Borror et al.; Chapman; Gauld and Bolton); in adult Lepidoptera and Trichoptera, jugum, q.v. (T-B).

king, in termites (Isoptera), primary reproductive, usually being dealate (T-B; Krishna, pers. comm.).

labellum, in the honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae), flabellum, q.v. (T-B, after Imms); see labella.

labia (sing., labium), peritreme, q.v., of spiracle (T-B, after MacGillivray); in Coccoidea (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), cicatrices, q.v. (T-B, after MacGillivray); in Hymenoptera, 2 papillae of abdominal segment IX originally bearing the separate gonopores, projecting as lobes paralleling mesal margin of gonapophyses IX from the ventral aspect of coxosternite IX in Symphyta (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith).

labial sclerite, in adult Culicidae (Diptera), one of 2 small cuticular plates borne immediately proximal to the prementum, receiving the cardino-prementalis from the cardo (Harbach and Knight; transl. "Labialsklerit" Schiemenz); in larval Muscomorpha (Diptera: Brachycera), hypopharyngeal sclerite, q.v., or one of several small sclerites located anteriorly below the hypopharyngeal sclerite (Teskey, in McAlpine); in larval Ichneumonoidea (Hymenoptera), a more or less V-shaped sclerite bordering labium laterally and ventrally (Gauld and Bolton, after Short).

labraria, in adult Hymenoptera, epipharynx, q.v. (T-B, after MacGillivray).

labraris, in Hymenoptera, the tube formed by the glossae (T-B, after MacGillivray).

labrecula, in adult Hymenoptera, the small transverse lip guarding the entrance to the basipharynx (T-B, after MacGillivray).

lacinia(e), a blade; the inner of the 2 gnathobases of the first maxilla (T-B, after Tillyard); the inner lobe of the maxilla, articulated to the stipes and bearing brushes of hairs or spines (T-B, after J. B. Smith); in adult Diptera, a flat lancetlike piercing structure which is never jointed (T-B; McAlpine); in Psocoptera, a hard elongated rod, slightly bifurcated or toothed at its free end and ensheathed by galea (T-B, after Imms); in Hymenoptera, digitus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Thomson); in larval Chironomidae (Diptera), posteriomesal projection or lobe of maxilla carrying several long bristlelike or short scalelike chaetae (Saether).

lamina annularis, in Hymenoptera, basal ring, q.v. (Tuxen, after Verhoeff).

lamina oblonga, in Hymenoptera, second gonocoxa, q.v. (Tuxen).

lamina parameralis, in Hymenoptera, gonocoxite, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).

lamina volsellaris, in Hymenoptera, basivolsella, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).

laminae aedeagales, in Hymenoptera, parameres, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).

lamnium (pl., lamnia), in adult Hymenoptera, segments of gonopod beyond radix (Tuxen, after Ross).

lance, in Hymenoptera, gonapophyses, q.v. (Tuxen, after Ross).

lanceolate cell, in adult Hymenoptera, first or second anal cells (T-B, after Norton; Borror et al.).

lancet(s), stylet, q.v., being a modified mouthpart (T-B); in Aculeata (Hymenoptera), first gonapophyses, q.v., except rami (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).

larva(e), a young insect which quits the egg in an early stage of morphological development and differs fundamentally in form from the adult (T-B); the immature form of animals that undergo metamorphosis (T-B, after Imms); feeding and growing stage of holometabolous insects that undergo complete metamorphosis (Peterson); in termites (Isoptera), an immature individual without any trace of wing buds or soldier characteristics (Wilson); in Thysanoptera, 2 active feeding instars (larva I, larva II) (Heming); see nymph.

latent learning, learning without apparent reinforcement, e.g., orientation flight of bees and wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) (Matthews and Matthews).

lateral areas, in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), the 3 spaces on the propodeum, between the median and lateral long carinae (T-B).

lateral axillar surface, in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), region of the axilla lateral to the axillar carina (Gibson); see dorsal axillar surface.

lateral fovea, in adult bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), facial fovea, q.v. (T-B; Eickwort, pers. comm.).

lateral lobe, in Odonata, the part of the labium which corresponds to the paraglossa with the palpiger and palpus (T-B, after Gerstaecker), or more probably, to the palpus alone (T-B, after Butler); also, an expansion borne by the squama at the side (T-B, after Garman); in many Orthoptera, the deflexed part of the pronotum which covers the sides of the prothorax (T-B); in certain adult Hymenoptera, parapsis, q.v. (T-B, after J. B. Smith).

lateral longitudinal area, in adult Hymenoptera, an area extending between the median and pleural carinae of propodeum (T-B).

lateral mesoscutal lobes, in adult Hymenoptera, parapsides, q.v. (Gibson).

lateral scale, one of the lateral processes of the ovipositor in Cynipidae (Hymenoptera), lying within and below the anal scale (T-B).

lateral valves, in Isoptera, dorsal valves, q.v. (Tuxen); in Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), gonoplacs (Tuxen); in Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera), saw-case, q.v. (Tuxen).

laterope, in adult Zelinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), an anterodorsal depression of the first metasomal tergite, more or less pit-shaped, situated in the glymma below the more or less developed dorsolateral carina (van Achterberg).

laterosternite(s), the lateral part of a definitive thoracic sternum, apparently derived from the sternopleurite of the subcoxa; a small sclerite occurring in the pleural region of the abdomen (actually a pleurite, in the sense that it lies in the pleural region) (T-B, after Snodgrass); in Isoptera and Dermaptera, separate lateral plates of the sides of the eusternum (T-B, after Imms); in Ensifera (Orthoptera), a small sclerite in the pleural wall above the subgenital plate (Tuxen); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), lateral subdivisions of sterna of pregenital abdominal segments (e.g. in some aquatic bugs) (Stys, pers. comm.); in some adult Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera), separate lateral piece of abdominal sternite (Gauld and Bolton).

Latreille's segment, in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), propodeum, q.v. (T-B).

legula(e), in adult Lepidoptera, the flexible straplike or tonguelike outgrowths bordering the food channel of the haustellum (Davis); in Tenthredinoidea (Hymenoptera), main body of distal portion of independent gonapophysis IX when distal rhachis is separated from gonopod (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith).

lek, a specific site where males display and compete for the attention of females, e.g., Hawaiian Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae), euglossine bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombinae: Euglossini), Asian fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae), and certain dragonflies (Odonata) (Matthews and Matthews).

lestobiosis, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), the relation in which colonies of a small species nest in the walls of the nest of a larger species and enter the chambers of the larger species to prey on brood or rob the food stores (T-B, after Forel; Wilson).

light-compass reaction, orientation so locomotion occurs at a fixed angle relative to light rays (Matthews and Matthews); the ability to move in a straight line by keeping the sun in a definite position on the retina of the eye, e.g., in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (Leftwich).

limaciform larva, a legless larva having the form of a Limax or slug (Gastropoda), e.g., larva of some sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) and some moths such as Limacodidae (Lepidoptera) (T-B; Leftwich); see slug caterpillar.

linea calva, in many adult Aphelinidae, Encyrtidae, and Eupelmidae (Hymenoptera), an oblique hairless strip of wing membrane running from the stigmal vein to the hind margin (Gauld and Bolton).

lingua, tongue, q.v., or hypopharynx, q.v. (T-B); in Collembola, Diplura, and Archaeognatha, a median lobe of the hypopharynx between superlinguae (T-B; Mackerras, in CSIRO); in adult Lepidoptera and Diptera, proboscis, q.v. (T-B; Leftwich); in larval Chironomidae (Diptera), ligula, q.v. (Saether); in adult Hymenoptera, glossa, q.v. (T-B).

lingula (pl., lingulae), lingual sclerite, q.v. (T-B, after MacGillivray); in Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), the fingerlike or elongate structure situated under the operculum and within the vasiform orifice (Stoetzel, in Stehr); in Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera), anal style, q.v. (Tuxen); in Melitaea (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), tonguelike structure overhanging and sometimes completely closing the "penis groove", formed from lateral margin of anellus, posterior to base of condyle, being rolled mesad and caudad (Tuxen, after Higgins); in Syrphidae (Diptera), unpaired median distal process of hypandrium (Tuxen, after Fluke); in bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), glossa, q.v. (T-B, after Leuckart, J. B. Smith).

lobulus, in adult Diptera, alula, q.v., of wing (T-B; Saether); in some adult Hymenoptera, claval lobe, q.v., of jugal lobe, q.v., of hind wing (T-B).

long-tongued bees, bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), including the Megachilidae, Apidae, and Anthophoridae, in which the glossa of adults is elongated and pointed, usually being longer than the prementum (Riek, in CSIRO); see short-tongued bees.

longitudinal sensillum, in adult Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera), multiporous plate sensillum, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

lorum (pl., lora), the chitinous bands connecting the submentum with the cardo of the maxilla (T-B, after Comstock); the submentum; small cords upon which the base of the proboscis is seated (T-B, after Say); the anterior part of the genae at the edge of the mouth (T-B); in Hemiptera, maxillary plate, q.v. (T-B; Woodward et al., in CSIRO); in adult Diptera, maxillary tendon, q.v. (T-B); in certain Diptera, the corneous processes to which the muscles for flexing the mouth are attached, in that sense, the palpifer of the maxilla (T-B); in adult Apoidea (Hymenoptera), V-shaped submentum supporting the elongate proboscis (T-B, after Imms; Borror et al.; Leftwich).

lower face, in adult Hymenoptera, area of face between the mouth margin and margin of toruli (Gauld and Bolton).

lunule, a small lunate mark or crescent, sometimes colored (T-B); any moon-shaped structure (Leftwich); in adult Diptera, frontal lunule, q.v. (Borror et al., McAlpine); in adult Hymenoptera, one of the crescent-shaped marks near the orbits (T-B, after J. B. Smith).

lysolecithin, one of the substances in the venom of bees and wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata), being a very toxic substance which breaks down the cells of its victim and sets free histamine (Leftwich).

macraner, an unusually large ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (T-B; Leftwich).

macrergate, an unusally large worker ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (T-B; Leftwich).

macrocephalic female, in the social Halictidae (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), a larger possessing a disproportionately large head, usually being the egg layers of a colony (Wilson).

macrogyne, an unusually large queen ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (T-B; Leftwich).

macropterous forms, in termites (Isoptera), alates, q.v. (T-B).

macropterous reproductive, in Isoptera, alate, q.v. (Krishna, pers. comm.).

major, in termites (Isoptera) and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), major worker, q.v. (T-B; Tulloch).

major soldier, in Isoptera, species with dimorphic castes, the larger of the 2 soldier forms (Krishna, pers. comm.).

major worker, in termites (Isoptera) and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a member of the largest worker subcaste which is usually specialized for defense (Wilson); see soldier, media worker, and minor worker.

malar space, in adult Hymenoptera, the shortest distance between the base of the mandible and the ventral margin of the compound eye (T-B, after MacGillivray; Gauld and Bolton).

malar sulcus, in some adult Hymenoptera, subocular sulcus, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

malaxation, softening by chewing with the mandibles, e.g., chewing and squeezing by fossorial wasps (Hymenoptera) of prey captured as food for their larvae (T-B; Leftwich).

mandibular glands, in Archaeognatha, Zygentoma, Blatteropteroidea, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera, paired saclike structures in the head opening near the base of the mandibles (T-B, after Snodgrass); in larval Lepidoptera, tubular salivary glands in the thorax on each side of the alimentary canal, communicating with the mouth by a pore at the base of the mandible (T-B); in Apis (Apidae) and some ants (Formicidae) (Hymenoptera), a saclike gland opening at the inner angle of each mandible, being larger in the queen and poorly developed in the drone, producing pheromones concerned with colony control, such as an alarm pheromone in workers (T-B, after Imms; Chapman).

mandibularia, in larval Symphyta (Hymenoptera), a small sclerite between the base of the mandible and gena (Gauld and Bolton); see pleurostoma.

mandibulate, mandibulated, mandibulatus (Latin), having opposable jaws (T-B); in Isoptera, mandibulate soldier, q.v. (Tulloch).

mandibulate larva, in some Hymenoptera parasitoids, early instar larva with large, heavily sclerotized, more or less prognathous head, posteriorly constricted body, and a pair of sickle-shaped mandibles (Gauld and Bolton).

mandibulate soldier, in eusocial insects, e.g., termites (Isoptera), a soldier which has large mandibles used in colony defense (Wilson; Krishna, pers. comm.).

manubrium (Latin), (pl., manubria), handle (R. W. Brown); in Collembola, the large median base of the furcula bearing the dentes (T-B; Christiansen and Bellinger); in Dermaptera, membranous extension, with a sclerotized margin, of proximal edge of abdominal sternum IX, forming a support for genital armature (Tuxen, after Burr); also applied in Dermaptera to parameral lever, q.v. (Tuxen, after Burr and Jordan); in Zoraptera, horseshoe-shaped basal plate, q.v. (Tuxen, after Denis); in Coleoptera, unpaired process (apophysis, apodeme) of tegmen (or of penis) (Tuxen); in adult Elateridae (Coleoptera), that part of the mesosternum fitting into the cavity of the prothorax (T-B); in Siphonaptera, the ventral, handlelike extension of the clasper body (Tuxen, after Wagner; Lewis, pers. comm.) (see apodeme of tergum IX); in adult Chironomidae, brachiolum, q.v., at base of wing (Saether); in Diptera larvae, metacephalic rod, q.v. (Teskey, in McAlpine); in Hymenoptera, gonocoxite, q.v. (Tuxen, after Hartig) or parapenial lobe, q.v. (Tuxen, after Rohwer).

marble galls, dark brown spherical galls formed on oak trees by the larvae of Andricus kollari or Cynips kollari (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) (T-B; Leftwich); see oak apple.

marginal cell (MC), a wing cell beyond the pterostigma (T-B, after J. B. Smith); in adult Hymenoptera, one or 2 closed radial cells of wing immediately posterior or distal to pterostigma and bordering costal margin (T-B; Borror et al.; Gauld and Bolton); in adult Diptera, first radial cell (r1) (T-B, after Williston).

marginal nervure, in Orthoptera, costa, q.v., of wing (T-B, after Comstock); in adult Hymenoptera, radial sector (Rs), q.v., delimiting marginal cell(s) posteriorly (T-B, after Norton); see marginal vein.

marginal vein, in adult Chalcidoidea and Scelionidae (Hymenoptera), portion of single composite vein along wing margin, between submarginal vein and postmarginal vein (Gauld and Bolton); see stigmal vein and marginal nervure.

mass communication, the transfer of information among groups of individuals of a kind that cannot be transmitted from a single individual to another, e.g., spatial organization of army ant raids, regulation of numbers of worker ants on odor trails (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and certain aspects of the thermoregulation of nests (Wilson).

mass provisioning, in solitary bees and wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata), provisioning cells with sufficient food for the developing larva and closing them before the eggs hatch (T-B, after Imms); the act of storing all of the food required for the development of a larva at the time the egg is laid (Wilson); see progressive provisioning.

matrifilial, eusocial Hymenoptera with colonies consisting of mother(s) and daughters (Michener).

maxillary glands, in Protura, Collembola, Heteroptera (Hemiptera), and some larval Neuroptera and Hymenoptera, usually small paired glands opening near the bases of the maxillae (T-B; Chapman).

May disease, a group of maladies of adult honey bees (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), having similar syndromes but different etiologies, e.g., constipation in bees infected with Saccharomyces applicatus (Steinhaus and Martignoni); see Bettlach May disease.

Mayrian furrow, in certain ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Y-shaped groove on the mesonotum, consisting of the notauli (T-B; Brown, pers. comm.).

media (M), the fifth longitudinal vein system (M), originating on the median plate (when present), usually divided into a generally convex anterior branch (MA) and concave posterior branch (MP), themselves often subdivided (MA to M1 and M2, MP to M3 and M4) (T-B, Comstock; Ross et al., after Hamilton) (see media anterior and media posterior); in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), media worker, q.v. (T-B, after W. M. Wheeler).

media worker, in polymorphic ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), series involving 3 of more worker subcastes, an individual belonging to the medium-sized subcaste(s) (Wilson); see minor worker and major worker.

median area, in wings of Orthoptera, area between the radius and media (T-B, after Comstock); in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), middle of propodeum, divided longitudinally by carinae into basal area, areola, and petiolar area (T-B).

median cell, in adult Hymenoptera, radial cell at the base of the wing (T-B; Riek, after Ross, in CSIRO).

median fovea, in some adult Hymenoptera, a rounded or angular pit located near the ventral margin of the frontal crest (T-B); see antennal fovea.

median groove, in Isoptera, groove in floor of inner vestibulum extending from gonopore along intersternal fold (Tuxen, after Weesner); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), a medially depressed groove on the floor of the genital chamber, acting as guide for distal part of phallus, its edges passing dorsoanterior to suspensory apodemes and posterior to inferior process (Tuxen, after Leston).

median longitudinal carinae, in adult Aculeata (Hymenoptera), longitudinal carinae on propodeum delimiting median area, q.v. (T-B).

median mesoscutal lobe, in many adult Symphyta (Hymenoptera), a median triangular area of mesoscutum formed by posterior meeting of notauli (Gibson; Gauld and Bolton); see parapsides.

median metascutal sulcus, in some adult Symphyta (Hymenoptera), median longitudinal groove of mesoscutum (Gibson; Gauld and Bolton).

median sclerotized style, in Hymenoptera, detached rhachies, q.v. (Tuxen, after Ries).

median segment, in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), propodeum, q.v. (T-B).

median sternal groove, in adult Hymenoptera, discrimen, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

median terminal lobe, in larval Symphyta (Hymenoptera), terminal lobe arising from prementum formed from fusion of glossae, paraglossae, and part of the hypopharynx (Gauld and Bolton); see ligule.

mediary segment, in adult Hymenoptera, propodeum, q.v. (T-B).

medisternite, in Isoptera, small median sclerotized area in intersegmental membrane between abdominal sterna VIII and IX (Tuxen, after Browman).

Megalodontoidea, superfamily within the suborder Symphyta (Hymenoptera), including only the Megalodontidae and Pamphilidae, possessing adults with a highly modified head capsule with separate mandibular foramina (Gauld and Bolton).

Megalyroidea, superfamily within the Apocrita (Hymenoptera), including the family Megalyridae, possessing adults with subantennal groove for reception of basal articles of antenna, with spurs on hind tibia not modified for preening, subsessile gaster, and antennae with 14 articles (Riek, in CSIRO; Gauld and Bolton).

melanosis, a disease of queen honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), characterized by discoloration of the egg cells and trophocytes, which turn from yellow-brown to black, and producing sterility in affected queens (Steinhaus and Martignoni); see B-melanosis and H-melanosis.

melittin, a poisonous proteinlike substance present in the venom of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) (Leftwich).

melittology, the study of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) (Wilson).

melittophile, any guest, parasite or predator in the society of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) (Tulloch, after Gaul).

melittophily, insect-flower pollination syndrome involving bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) (Matthews and Matthews, after Baker and Hurd).

mellifera, honey-makers; applied to bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) as a whole (T-B).

melliferous, honey-producing (T-B); pollen and nectar gathering, e.g., bees (Apoidea) and some Vespidae (Hymenoptera) (Riek, in CSIRO).

menotaxis, partial or indefinite orientation (T-B); movement in a direction that makes a constant angle with a source of light, as for instance in the case of some ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), so as to keep a constant visual pattern (Leftwich); see light-compass reaction.

mermithaner, a ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), parasitized by the nematode Mermis (T-B); see mermithophore.

mermithergate, a worker ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), parasitized by the nematode Mermis (T-B); see mermithophore.

mermithogyne, a queen ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), parasitized by the nematode Mermis (T-B); see mermithophore.

mesocephalic pillars, in the honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), 2 large, oblique, strongly chitinous bars which form a brace between the anterior and posterior walls of the head (T-B, after Snodgrass).

mesosoma (pl., mesosomata), the middle of the 3 major divisions of the insect body, in most insects being strictly equivalent to the thorax, but in some Apocrita (Hymenoptera) including the propodeum (Wilson) (see alitrunk); in Lithosiinae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), sclerotized plate connecting the 2, usually more or less modified, valvellae ventrad of aedoeagus, which it supports (Tuxen, after Birket-Smith); see alitrunk.

mesosulcus, in adult Hymenoptera, discrimen, q.v. (T-B).

metanotal groove, in some adult Hymenoptera, transverse groove representing fusion of mesonotum and metanotum (Gauld and Bolton).

metaparapteron, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), postnotum, q.v. (T-B, after W. M. Wheeler).

metapleural gland, in most Formicidae (Hymenoptera), a large gland with an external bulla and a small orifice, opening on each side of the metathorax at its lower posterior corners (Brown and Taylor, in CSIRO).

metapodeon, in Hymenoptera, gaster, q.v. (T-B).

metapostscutellum, in adult Hymenoptera, metapostnotum, q.v. (T-B).

metasoma (pl., metasomata), the posterior principle division of the insect body, in most insect groups being strictly equivalent to the abdomen, in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), gaster, q.v. (T-B, after Michener; Wilson).

metasternal gland, in adult ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), metapleural gland, q.v. (Tulloch).

micraner, an abnormally small ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (T-B; Leftwich).

microgyne, a dwarf queen ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (T-B).

micropterogyne, a form with small wings, which may be a normal form for some species (Tulloch); an anomolous ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), having very small or vestigial wings which may exist with normal females or as the only type of queen in a colony (Tulloch).

Microsporidea, class of protozoans which live parasitically inside the cells of a wide range of invertebrates and some lower vertebrates, including the genus Nosema, the species of which cause diseases of economic importance in silkworms, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) and in honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (Allaby).

middle apical area, in adult Hymenoptera, internal area, q.v. (T-B).

middle clasper, in Hymenoptera, digitus, q.v. (Tuxen).

middle pleural area, in adult Hymenoptera, the median of the 3 areas between the lateral and pleural carinae of propodeum (T-B).

middorsal spot, in some Isoptera, a small, unpigmented or lightly colored area surrounding the fontanelle (Krishna, pers. comm.).

minima, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), minor worker, q.v. (Wilson).

minor, in termites (Isoptera) and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), minor worker, q.v. (T-B; Tulloch).

minor soldier, in Isoptera species with dimorphic castes, a soldier of the smaller of the 2 forms (Krishna, pers. comm.).

minor worker, in termites (Isoptera) and ants (Hyemnoptera: Formicidae), a member of the smallest worker subcaste (Wilson); see media worker and major worker.

mixed segment, in some Termitidae (Isoptera), the section of the intestine where a portion of the midgut extends over the hind gut (Noirot et al., in Krishna and Weesner).

mobbing, a type of group defense in which a predator is harrassed by a number of maneuverable prey individuals, e.g., social Hymenoptera (Matthews and Matthews).

monodomous, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) , having one nest only for each colony (T-B).

monogynous, condition in colonies of eusocial Hymenoptera in which there is only one fecund female or queen (T-B; Eickwort, pers. comm.); see polygynous.

monolectic, describing bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) that use pollen of only a single plant species (Gauld and Bolton); see oligolectic and polylectic.

monophasic allometry, polymorphism in which the allometric regression line has a single slope; in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), the use of the term also implies that the relation of some of the body parts measured is nonisometric (Wilson).

Monotrocha, adult Hymenoptera that lack a trochantellus (T-B); see ditrocha.

monotrochous, in adult Hymenoptera, lacking a trochantellus (T-B).

morbid drone-laying, a disease of queen honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in which mated queens become drone layers, laying unfertilized eggs into cells reserved for worker bees (Steinhaus and Martignoni).

Morison's cell inclusions, strongly basophilic cytoplasmic inclusions appearing in the hind gut epithelium of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), showing chronic paralysis, the inclusions being largest in the cells immediately posterior to the openings of the Malpighian tubules (Steinhaus and Martignoni).

mound nest, in Isoptera, a nest at least part of which is constructed of a mound of soil or carton material that projects above the ground surface, the architecture often being elaborate, specific in plan to the species, and contributing to microclimatic control within the nest (Wilson).

mucro (pl., mucrones), a short, sharp, pointed process (T-B, after Kirby and Spence); the median posterior part of epigastrium when differentiated by elevation (T-B); the terminal spine or process of an obtect pupa (T-B); in Collembola, the third (terminal) segment of the furcula, arising from the apex of the dens (T-B; Christiansen and Bellinger); in adult Elateridae (Coleoptera), prosternal process (T-B); in Symphyta (Hymenoptera), pointed apices of the 2 gonapophyses IX used as a driving wedge when ovipositing into plant tissues (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith).

mucus gland, in aculate Hymenoptera, poison gland, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

mud cells, in Eumeninae, Vespidae, and some Sphecidae (Hymenoptera), cells made of mud into which are placed caterpillar (Lepidoptera) prey (Riek, in CSIRO).

multiporous plate sensillum, in adult Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera), elongate plate organ on the flagellomeres of the antenna (Gauld and Bolton, after Barlin and Vinson).

mymariform larva, endophagous larva found in many Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera), lacking an obvious constriction between the cephalothorax and abdomen and bearing a conical process anteriorly on the head (Gauld and Bolton, after Jackson).

myrmecoclepty, the form of symbiosis exhibited by the ant-guest Atelura (Zygentoma: Lepismatidae), in which the symbiont steals regurgitated honey in its passage from the mouth of one ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) to the other (T-B).

myrmecodomatia, structures in higher plants that appear to have evolved, in the course of mutualistic evolution, to serve as dwelling places for ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (Wilson).

myrmecology, the study of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (T-B; Wilson).

myrmecomorph, insects other than Formicidae (Hymenoptera) which resemble ants.

myrmecophile, an insect nest mate or parasite of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), harbored in their nests, either cared for by the ants or preying upon the ants or their brood (T-B, after W. M. Wheeler); an organism that must spend at least part of its life cycle with ant colonies (Wilson); see inquiline.

myrmecophilous, ant-loving, being applied to insects that live in ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) nests (T-B).


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