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2007-02-20

Glossary

The Social Insects Glossary

This glossary of entomological terms is based on Torre Bueno's Glossary, from which all terms relevant to ants, wasps, bees and termites where extracted.

  A | B - F | G - M | N - P | Q - U | V - Z  

nanitic workers, in ants (Hymenoptera) or termites (Isoptera), dwarf workers produced from either the first brood or later broods that have been subjected to starvation (Gay, in CSIRO; Wilson).

Nassanov's gland, in worker honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), a pheromone-producing gland beneath the intersegmental membrane between abdominal terga VI and VII (Chapman).

nasus, the nose, i.e., that part of the insect head with which the labrum articulates, frequently noselike (T-B); postclypeus, q.v. (T-B, after J. B. Smith); in Odonata, the clypeus or a modification of it (T-B); in some Nasutitermitinae (Isoptera: Termitidae), snoutlike organ possessed by soldiers, being used to eject poisonous or sticky fluid at intruders (Wilson); in adult Tipulinae (Diptera: Tipulidae), small projection of rostrum (Alexander and Byers, in McAlpine); in certain Hymenoptera, the anterior termination of the face (T-B).

nasute soldier, in Nasutitermitinae (Isoptera: Termitidae), a soldier with a snoutlike prolongation of the head capsule, or nasus, q.v., used to eject a poisonous or sticky secretion in defense (T-B).

nasutoid soldier, in some Rhinotermitidae (Isoptera), a soldier with a highly elongated, grooved labrum, along which defensive secretions flow; not to be confused with true nasute soldiers (Weesner, in Krishna and Weesner).

natural requeening, in Bombus (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), the continuance of a colony upon the death or loss of the foundress , by the entrance of another of the same species (Tulloch, after Plath).

naupliiform larva, early larva of the form or shape of the nauplius larva in Crustacea (T-B, after Comstock), e.g., first-instar larva of Platygasteridae (Hymenoptera) (Peterson); see cyclopoid larva.

necrophoresis, in social insects, transport of dead members of the colony away from the nest, a highly developed and stereotyped behavior in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (Wilson).

nectar, the sugary secretion of the plant, produced by flowers or other structures, frequently scented; the main or only food of many insects, particularly Apoidea (Hymenoptera), adult Lepidoptera and some adult Diptera (T-B).

nemoglossata, bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), with a threadlike tongue (T-B).

neotenic reproductive, in Isoptera, a term applied to royalties newly developed in a termite society on the occasion of the loss or death of the original royal pair which retain some juvenile characters (T-B, after Tillyard); see ergatoid reproductive and nymphoid reproductive.

nest aura, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), nest odor, q.v. (T-B).

nest odor, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), the distinctive odor of a nest, by which its inhabitants are able to distinguish the nest from those belonging to other colonies or at least from the surrounding environment (Wilson); see hive odor.

nest parasitism, the relation, found in some termites (Isoptera), in which colonies of one species live in the walls of the nest of a second (host species) and feed directly on the carton material of which it is constructed (Wilson).

netrion, in adult Hymenoptera, posterolateral region of the pronotum that is delineated externally by a row of foveae or a linear or foveolate sulcus, and internally by a ridge or apodeme (Gibson).

neuter, the term applied to workers or nonreproductive females in Isoptera and Hymenoptera, being indicated by ? or ?, imperfect forms of the zodiacal sign Venus (T-B).

ninth hemitergites, in Apoidea (Hymenoptera), lateral remnants of abdominal tergum IX (Tuxen, after Michener).

nodus (pl., nodi, a knot or knob (T-B); in adult Odonata, the stout crossvein near the middle of the costal margin of the wing, joining the costa, subcosta and radius (T-B, after Needham); in adult Odonata, a notch marking the position of a prominent crossvein near the middle of the front edge of the wing (Leftwich); in adult Apocrita (especially ants) (Hymenoptera), petiole, q.v., or postpetiole, q.v. (T-B; Leftwich).

nomadic phase, in army ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), the period in which the colony forages more actively for food and moves frequently from one bivouac site to another, the queen does not lay eggs, and the bulk of the brood is in the larval stage (Tulloch, after Gaul; Wilson); see statary phase.

nomadism, the relatively frequent movement by an entire colony from one nest site to another, e.g., in army ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (Wilson).

nominotypical taxon, the taxon at a lower rank within the family group, the genus group, or the species group that contains the name-bearing type of a divided taxonomic taxon of that group and has exactly the same name in the case of genus-group and species-group names, but whose suffix is amended in family-group names according to rank (ICZN), e.g., Apinae is the nominotypical subfamily of the family Apidae (Hymenoptera); Apis mellifera mellifera is the nominotypical subspecies of the species Apis mellifera.

noninclusion viruses, insect viruses that occur free in tissues as viruses do in higher animals and plants; the viruses are not included in crystals, granules, or other inclusion bodies; as yet only a small number of these viruses have been found in insects; found in larval Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and in larval and adult Hymenoptera (Pfadt).

nosema disease, a disease of adult honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), caused by the microsporidian Nosema apis Zander, the protozoan developing within the cells of the midgut epithelium (Steinhaus and Martignoni).

notaulix (pl., notaulices), in adult Hymenoptera, notaulus, q.v. (T-B, after Snodgrass; Riek, in CSIRO).

notaulus (pl., notauli), in many adult Hymenoptera, one of a pair of posteriorly converging lines on mesoscutum (Gauld and Bolton); see median mesoscutal lobe and parapsidal line.

notum (pl., nota, tergum of a thoracic segment, i.e., pronotum, mesonotum, or metanotum (T-B; Peterson; Leftwich); in Hymenoptera and other orders, fused dorsal rami of gonapophyses IX (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith); in Hymenoptera and other orders, fused dorsal rami of gonapophyses IX, usually produced into a ridge or swelling (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith; Saether); see eunotum, tergum, and tergite.

novasternal coria, in Isoptera, flexible membrane between abdominal sterna VIII and IX (Tuxen, after Geyer).

nozzle, in adult Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), modified hypopygium bearing acidopore (Gauld and Bolton).

nucleopolyhedrosis, a usually fatal, viral disease of insects, mainly the larvae of certain Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera, characterized by the formation of polyhedral inclusion bodies (polyhedra) in the nuclei of infected cells, with the virus multiplying in the epidermis, tracheal matrix, fatbody, and hemocyctes of Lepidoptera and in the midgut epithelium of Hymenoptera (Steinhaus and Martignoni); see grasserie, jaundice, polyhedrosis, wilt disease, and Wipfelkrankheit.

nuptial flight, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), the mating flight of winged queens, males, or both (Wilson; Brown, pers. comm.).

nurse, young worker bee (Apidae) or small worker ant (Formicidae) (Hymenoptera) whose chief occupation is feeding larvae and caring for eggs and pupae (T-B; Eickwort, pers. comm.).

nutricial castration, in eusocial bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the loss of fertility through selective feeding during the larval period by the brood nurses; the basis of the theory of the trophogenic determination of caste (Tulloch).

nutritive layer, in galls of Cynipidae (Hymenoptera), the innermost tissue of the gall, lining the larval cell (T-B, after Kinsey).

nygmata (sing., nygma), in some adult Neuropteroidea, Mecoptera, Trichoptera, and Symphyta (Hymenoptera), presumed sensory spots on the wings (Riek, in CSIRO).

nymphoid reproductive, in Isoptera, a supplementary or replacement reproductive bearing wing buds (Miller).

oak apple, a relative large spongy, spherical gall on leaves or stems of oaks (Quercus spp.) produced by larvae of various Cynipidae (Hymenoptera) (T-B; Borror et al.); see marble gall.

oak button-gall, small, flat, circular gall produced on the surface of oak (Quercus spp.) leaves by the larva of Neuroterus spp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) (Leftwich).

oak root-gall, gall on roots of oak trees (Quercus spp.), produced by larval Cynipidae (Hymenoptera) (Leftwich).

oblong plates, in Aculeata (Hymenoptera), second gonocoxae, q.v. (T-B, after Imms; Tuxen, after Snodgrass).

obtusilingues, those bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) with short tongues having an obtuse or bifid tip (T-B); see acutilingues.

occipital carina, in adult Hymenoptera, carina delimiting the occiput peripherally (Gauld and Bolton).

ocellar basin, in adult Hymenoptera, a concave area occupying the median portion of the frontal area, varying greatly in form and size in the different families and subfamilies (T-B).

ocellar furrow, in adult Hymenoptera, a transverse furrow extending between the ends of the vertical furrows near the dorsal margin of the lateral ocelli, frequently being confluent with the space around the lateral ocelli (T-B).

octasternal coria, in Isoptera, flexible membrane between abdominal sterna VII and VIII (Tuxen, after Geyer).

oculocephalic, of or pertaining to the eyes and the head; applied to the imaginal buds destined to produce the cephalic region in Hymenoptera (T-B).

oligolectic, used to describe bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) that gather pollen from only a few species of related flowers (Riek, after Linsley, in CSIRO); see monolectic and polylectic.

olistheter(s), in adult Hymenoptera and other orders, sliding interlock between gonapophyses VIII and IX, consisting of a tongue, rachis along ventral ramus of gonapophysis IX, fitting into a groove, aulax, on dorsal ramus of corresponding gonapophysis VIII (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith).

omaulus, in adult Hymenoptera, epicnemial carina, q.v. (Bohart and Menke, after Pate).

oothecalike mass, in Mastotermes (Isoptera: Mastotermitidae), a batch of eggs cemented together in 2 rows, resembling the ootheca of cockroaches, though without an envelope (Krishna, pers. comm.); see egg pod.

operaria, in eusocial Hymenoptera, workers, q.v. (T-B).

operculum genitalis, in Hymenoptera, abdominal sterna VIII and IX (Tuxen, after Radoszkowski).

oral fossa, in Ischnocera (Phthiraptera), a furrow lying in front of the mandibles (T-B); in adult Hymenoptera, preoral cavity, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

orbicula, in adult Hymenoptera, a small dorsal sclerite at the base of the arolium and distad of the unguifer, being the sclerotized chitinized area on the dorsal aspect of the pretarsus (T-B, after MacGillivray).

orientation flight, in bees and wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata), the flight by which they learn the location of their nest through landmark's recognized and remembered (Matthews and Matthews).

Orthandria, a group including the Symphyta, excluding the Tenthredinoidea, and the Apocrita within the Hymenoptera (Hennig, after Crampton, Ross); a group proposed for those members of the Symphyta (Hymenoptera) with the larval stemmata posteroventral to the antennae and by a tendency for the larvae to exist in confined situations (Gauld and Bolton, after Rasnitzyn); see Strophandria.

orthandrous copulation, in nontenthredinoid Symphyta, some Xyelidae, and all Apocrita (Hymenoptera), copulation in which the genitalia are not rotated, but must mount back of and curve abdomen beneath hers (Tuxen, after Crampton); see strophandrous copulation.

Orussoidea, superfamily within the Symphyta (Hymenoptera), including the family Orussidae, closely related to, and perhaps justifiably combined with, the Siricoidea (Gauld and Bolton).

Orussomorpha, infraorder porposed for the symphytan family Orrusidae (Hymenoptera), placing it within the Apocrita (Gauld and Bolton, after Rasnitsyn).

ostium vestibulare (pl., ostia vestibularia), in Isoptera, external opening of vestibulum (Tuxen, after Roonwal).

outer clasper, in Hymenoptera, gonocoxite + gonostylus (Tuxen, after Michener).

outer genital chamber, in Isoptera, outer vestibulum, q.v. (Tuxen, after Weesner); in Delphacidae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha), space behind genital phragm (Tuxen).

outer plates, in Nepidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), gonocoxites of abdominal segment VIII, q.v. (Tuxen, after Hamilton); in aculeate Hymenoptera, ninth hemitergites, q.v. (T-B; Tuxen).

outer ramus of stipes, in Hymenoptera, gonostylus, q.v. (Tuxen).

outer vestibulum, in Isoptera, outer (distal or posterior), portion of vestibulum (genital chamber) where the latter is divided (Tuxen, after Roonwal).

ovipositor lobe, in Hymenoptera, gonoplac, q.v. (Tuxen).

ovipositor sheath, in Psyllidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), the fused apices of second gonapophyses (Tuxen); in Nabidae, Miridae, and other Heteroptera (Hemiptera), the sheath in which the ovipositor lies, formed by parts of body wall and genitalia (gonocoxites IX + styloids) (Tuxen, after Ekblom); in some higher Diptera, transformed abdominal segment VII (Tuxen); in Hymenoptera, gonoplacs, q.v. (Tuxen).

pairing, in Isoptera, the association of a and a imago involving wing-shedding and the following the in tandem, just after the dispersal flight and prior to the selection of a nesting site (Krishna, pers. comm.).

palp formula, in adult Hymenoptera, 2 numbers, the former indicating the number of segments in the maxillary palpus, the latter the number of segments in the labial palpus (Gould and Bolton).

palplike appendages, in Aculeata (Hymenoptera), gonostyli, q.v. (T-B, after Imms).

palpus (pl., palpi), tactile, usually segmented (fingerlike) structures borne by the maxillae (maxillary palpi) and labium (labial palpi) (T-B; Peterson); in Hymenoptera, gonoplac, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); see maxillary palpus and labial palpus.

Panneuroptera, group proposed to include the Neuropteroidea, Coleoptera, Strepsiptera, and Hymenoptera (Hennig, after Crampton, Wille).

panoistic ovariole, in Diplura, Archaeognatha, Zygentoma, Odonata, Plecoptera, Orthoptera, Phasmida, Isoptera, and Siphonaptera, an ovariole with no specialized nurse cells (T-B; Chapman; von Kéler).

papilla (pl., papillae), a minute, soft projection (T-B); primitively paired outgrowths around coelomoducts between coxosternites and gonocoxites VIII and IX, each originally bearing a gonopore, but openings coalescing into a single median aperture in Hymenoptera, with papillary rudiments to either side ( labia) or united into a median penis or aedeagus () (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith); in Protura, papilliform distal continuation of perigynium above styli (Tuxen); in larval Lepidoptera, modified ligula, i.e., spinneret, q.v. (T-B); in Siphonaptera, small sclerotized knob at apex of hilla (Tuxen, after Smit); see papillae.

parabiosis, in Formicidae (Hymenoptera), the utilization of the same nest and sometimes even the same odor trails by colonies of different species, which nevertheless keep their brood separate (Wilson).

paraecie, in Isoptera, the empty space separating a subterranean nest from the surrounding soil (Noirot, in Krishna and Weesner).

paragenital plate, in Isoptera, abdominal sternum VIII (Tuxen, after Fuller).

parameral plate, in Hymenoptera, gonocoxite, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).

parameral spine, in Hymenoptera, gonostylus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Richards).

paramere(s), in Hymenoptera, paired appendages forming a conical capsule containing more delicate parts of the genitalia (Tuxen, after Beck; Gauld and Bolton), gonostyli, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass), gonocoxites + gonostyli (Tuxen, after LaPorte), gonocoxites + gonostyli + volsellae (Tuxen, after Verhoeff), or in Formicidae, the genitalia (Tuxen, after Wheeler).

parapenial lobe, in Hymenoptera, dorsal, inner, marginal lobe of gonocoxite, often projecting distad over aedeagus (Tuxen, after Crampton).

parapenis, in Hymenoptera, parapenial lobe, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton).

parapodial plates, in Isoptera and adult Diptera, paraprocts, q.v. (Tuxen).

paraproct(s), in lower insects (e.g., Archaeognatha, Zygentoma, Odonata, and Embiidina), a pair of plates on the sides of and below anus, belonging to abdominal segment XI (in Isoptera and Embiidina said to belong to abdominal segment X) as its subdivided sternum (Tuxen); in Archaeognatha and Zygentoma, plates at bases of cerci (Tuxen); in Ephemeroptera, ventral, paired portion of abdominal segment XI (Tuxen); in Embiidina, the 2 parts of abdominal sternum X on either side of anus (Ross, in Tuxen); in Plecoptera, subanal plates, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton); in Phthiraptera, pair of posterior lobes at the end of the last abdominal segment (Lyal); in adult Psocoptera, a pair of sclerites on the sides of anus, probably part of tergum X (Tuxen); in adult Ascalaphidae and Mantispidae (Neuroptera), ectoproct, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton); in adult Corydalus (Megaloptera: Corydalidae), Ithone (Planipennia: Ithonidae), and Myrmeleontidae (Planipennia), abdominal tergum IX, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton); in Neuroptera, ectoproct, q.v. (Tuxen, after Michener); in Coleoptera, the halves of tergum IX (Tuxen, after Tanner); in Protohermes (Megaloptera: Corydalidae), catoprocessus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Tjeder); in Coniopterygidae (Planipennia), gonapophyses laterales, q.v. (Tuxen, after Withycombe); in adult Diptera, sclerotizations in proctiger supposedly homologous with paraprocts of lower insects (Tuxen).

parapsidal furrow, in adult Proctotrupidae (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea), notaulus, q.v. (T-B); see parapsidal line.

parapsidal line, in numerous Apocrita (Hymenoptera), a marking, lateral of notaulus, typically extending anteriorly from posterior region of mesoscutum (Gauld and Bolton).

parapsidal suture, in many adult Nematocera (Diptera), esp. certain Psychodidae and Chironomidae, paired, more or less longitudinally aligned sutures on mesoscutum, continuing caudally in a sublateral (dorsocentral) position (Saether; McAlpine); in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), notaulus, q.v. (T-B, after W. M. Wheeler).

parapsides (sing., parapsis), in adult Mecoptera and many Symphyta (Hymenoptera), lateral pieces of mesoscutum, separated from mesal part by grooves (notauli) (T-B; Riek, in CSIRO); see median mesoscutal lobe.

parapteron (pl., paraptera), basalare, q.v., or subalare, q.v. (T-B; Leftwich); in Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), 6 small sclerites located laterally on proscutum, mesoscutum, and metascutum of adults (Gill); in adult Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera, tegula, q.v. (T-B).

parascrobal area, in many adult Chalcididae (Hymenoptera), raised lateral area next to antennal scrobes (Gault and Bolton).

parascutal carina, in adult Hymenoptera, lateral carina of mesoscutum that divides the dorsal, more or less horizontal, mesoscutal surface from the lateral, more or less vertical, mesoscutal surface (Gibson).

parascutal lobe, in adult Syricidae (Hymenoptera: Symphyta), region of the mesoscutum delineated by an oblique furrow anteroventral to the scutellum (Gibson).

Parasitica, Anoplura, q.v. (T-B); poorly defined division of the Apocrita (Hymenoptera) in which the ovipositor is not modified into a sting, including the superfamilies Megalyroidea, Stephanoidea, Trigonalyoidea, Evanioidea, Ichneumonoidea, Chalcidoidea, Cynipoidea, Ceraphronoidea, and Proctotrupoidea, whose larvae are parasites (Gauld and Bolton); see Aculeata.

parasitoid, an internal or external parasite, e.g., many Hymenoptera and Tachinidae (Diptera), that slowly kills the host, this event occurring near the end of the parasite's larval development; also used as an adjective (T-B, after Comstock; Wilson); see idiobiont and koinobiont.

parastigma, pterostigma, q.v. (T-B); in some adult Chalcididae (Hymenoptera), a dilation at junction of submarginal and marginal veins (Gauld and Bolton); see prestigma.

parategula, in adult Eumeninae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), posterolateral process of mesocutum (Carpenter, after Carpenter and Cumming).

parecium, the air space surrounding the fungus garden in the nest of a macrotermitine (Isoptera: Termitidae) (Wilson).

parental manipulation theory, hypothesis for the evolution of eusociality in Hymenoptera in which the mother manipulates her offspring (either genetically, behaviorly, or physiologically), so that she dominates and controls her daughters in such a way that her own fitness is enhanced (Gauld and Bolton, after Alexander, and Brothers and Michener); see kin selection theory.

parossiculus, in Hymenoptera, volsella except for digitus (Tuxen, after Crampton).

pars articularis, in Hymenoptera, gonagulum, q.v. (Tuxen, after Oeser).

paunch, any pounchlike appendage of the alimentary canal (T-B); in Isoptera, the voluminous, dilated, second or third segment of the hind gut, containing symbiotic protozoa (Noirot, in Krishna and Weesner); in some Phthiraptera, a croplike accessory pouch (T-B).

Pavan's gland, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), gland opening on the ventral surface of the abdomen above abdominal sternite VI, producing trail pheromone in Dolichoderinae (Chapman).

pavillions, the sheds or cells sometimes built by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), as shelter for groups of Aphidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) (T-B).

pea gall, spherical green gall about the size of peas but having a number of small spikelike projections, occurring on rose leaves and caused by gall wasp Diplolepis nervosa and related species (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) (Leftwich); see spiked pea gall.

pecten, any comblike structure or organ (T-B; Leftwich); a comblike stridulating organ on some insects (Leftwich); in certain Lepidoptera, cubital pecten, q.v. (T-B) or an anterior comb of stiff, hairlike scales on antennal scape (Common, in CSIRO); in larval Culicidae (Diptera), the comblike teeth on the ventrolateral portion of the respiratory siphon (Peterson); in adult Hymenoptera, rigid, incurved setae on the basal parts of maxilla and labium (T-B); in pollen-gathering bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), the rows of spines on the tarsi (T-B); in many burrowing Hymenoptera, e.g., Sphecoidea, Pompiloidea, and Scolioidea, row of special, long, flattened bristles on the lateral margin of foretarsus (Riek, in Hymenoptera); see pectinate.

pedicel, pedicellus (Latin) (pl., pedicelli), a stalk or stem supporting an organ or other structure (T-B); the second segment of the insect antenna, supporting the flagellum (Chapman); fine duct connecting an ovariole with the oviduct (Chapman); the waist of an ant (Formicidae) or of other Hymenoptera, made up of either one segment (the petiole) or 2 segments (the petiole plus the postpetiole) (T-B, after W. M. Wheeler; Wilson).

peduncle, pedunculus (Latin) (pl., pedunculi), a stalk or petiole (T-B); a stalklike structure supporting an organ or another structure (T-B); in Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera), scape, q.v., of antenna (T-B); the large stalk of the corpora pedunculata of the brain (T-B); in Formicidae (Hymenoptera), a basal or apically narrowed stalk of the petiole (Brown, pers. comm.); see pedunculi.

penal claspers, in Proctotrupidae (Hymenoptera), lateral fringed processes of the genitalia (T-B; Tuxen).

penicilli, in Planipennia, pleuritosquamae, q.v. (Tuxen, after Navás); in Noctuidae (Lepidoptera), peniculi, q.v. (Tuxen, after Forbes); in bees (Hymenoptera: Apoide), setae forming a brush at the hind tibial apex of adult females, used in spreading components of cell linings (Eickwort, pers. comm., after Michener); in various Hymenoptera, one-segmented cerci, q.v. (T-B, after J. B. Smith; Brown, pers. comm.); see penicillus.

penicillus (pl., penicilli), a pencil or brush of hair (T-B); a small setiferous process or bunch of fine hairs at the base of the mandible on the inner margin (Peterson); in some moths (Lepidoptera), hair pencil, q.v. (T-B); in adult Meliponinae (Hymenoptera: Apidae), a brush, on pollen press of hind tibia (Carpenter, pers. comm., after Kimsey); see penicilli.

penis (pl., penes), intromittent organ which is nonhomologous throughout the Pterygota (Tuxen; Sturm); in Protura, phallus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Prell) or styli, q.v. (Tuxen, after Denis); in Diplura, three- or four-lobed structure around gonopore, divided into phallobase and aedeagus (Tuxen, after Silvestri; von Kéler); in Archaeognatha and Zygentoma, unpaired organ for sperm transfer (Tuxen); in Ephemeroptera, bilobed, sometimes fused, copulatory organ between genostyles (Tuxen); in Odonata, prophallus, q.v. (Tuxen); in Blatteropteroidea, left epiphallus and phallus (Tuxen, after Peytoureau), apophysis, q.v. (Tuxen, after Chopard), hypophallus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Walker), or phallus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Wesché); in some Isoptera, pointed, but nonsclerotized, membranous, median papilla on intersegmental membrane between abdominal sterna IX and X, on which ductus ejaculatorius opens (Tuxen); in Zoraptera, the hook-shaped unpaired lobe protruding from the posterior end and bearing postuncus at its apex and genital opening at its base (Tuxen, after Paulian); in Plecoptera, the protrusible part of genital cavity modified for mating (Tuxen), supraanal lobe, q.v. Tuxen, after Hagen), or (in Nemoura) the apex of subgenital plate (Tuxen, after Wu);

penis (pl., penes), in Neuropteroidea, intromittent organ of aedeagus, most often membranous (Tuxen); in Sialis (Megaloptera: Sialidae) mediuncus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Berland and Grassé); in Mantispidae (Planipennia), penisfilum, q.v. (Tuxen, after Ferris); in Mecoptera (e.g., Bittacidae), intromittent organ of aedeagus (Tuxen); in Trichoptera, phallus, q.v. (Tuxen); in Lepidoptera, the whole complex, intromittent organ, derived embryonically from phallus and consisting chiefly of aedeagus and vesica (Tuxen) or referring to aedeagus, q.v., or vesica, q.v., alone (Tuxen); in Diptera, aedeagus, q.v. (Tuxen; McAlpine), membranous parts at its tip (Tuxen), or sclerotizations of the tip often divided up into 2 or 3 tubercles (penis filaments) (Tuxen); in Chironomidae, endophallus, q.v., or pars ventralis, q.v. (Saether); in Siphonaptera, tube enclosed by endophallus and traversed by ejaculatory duct (Tuxen, after Snodgrass), phallosome, q.v. (Tuxen, after Beier), tubus interior, q.v. (Tuxen, after Jordan), aedeagus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Jordan and Rothschild), or endophallus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Landois); in Hymenoptera, the median unpaired part of genitalia, terminating in phallotreme (Tuxen, after Audouin), aedeagus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Hartig; Gauld and Bolton), in Apis, endophallus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass), or, in Apoidea median remnant of aedeagus (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).

penis bulb, a peculiar oval body carried within the upper part of the penis by the drone honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the marriage flight (T-B, after Packard).

penis rods, in Siphonaptera, virga penis, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in Hymenoptera, parameres, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton).

penis valve(s), in Protura, side plates, q.v. (Tuxen); in Ephemeroptera, penis, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton); in Agulla (Raphidioptera: Raphidiidae), hypovalvae, q.v. (Tuxen, after Michener); in Mecoptera, ventral parameres, q.v. (Tuxen, after Michener); in Chironomidae (Diptera), phallapodeme, q.v. (Saether); in Diptera, parts of parameral lobes which may coalesce with intromittent organ in ontogeny (Tuxen) or parameres, q.v. (McAlpine); in Hymenoptera, parameres, q.v.

penisvalvae, in Zoraptera, clasping organs, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton); in Neuroptera, parameres, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton); in Hymenoptera, parameres, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton).

pentachlorophenol, C6HCl5O, a wood preservative, used to control termites (Isoptera) and to protect cut timber from wood-boring insects and from fungal rots; moderately toxic to mammals, acute oral LD50 for rats 50 to 140 mg/kg (Pfadt).

perennial colony, in social Hymenoptera, a colony that lasts more than one season (T-B; Eickwort, pers. comm.).

petiolar area, in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), posterior-most of the 3 median areas on propodeum (T-B); see area.

petiolar segments, in adult Formicidae (Hymenoptera), pedicel, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

petiolarea, in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), petiolar area, q.v. (T-B).

petiole, petiolus (Latin), a stem or stalk (T-B); in certain Diptera, the slender segment between the thorax and abdomen (T-B); in Apocrita (Hymenoptera), the narrow second abdominal segment behind the propodeum, or the first segment of a 2 segmented pedicel in some Formicidae (T-B; Wilson; Chapman).

petioliform, of the form or shape of the petiole in Hymenoptera (T-B).

phallobase, in insects, proximal part of phallus, in contrast to aedeagus, sometimes a large basal structure supporting aedeagus, sometimes a thecal fold or sheath about aedeagus, sometimes represented only by basal phallic sclerites in wall of genital chamber (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); also applied to basal part of parameres (sensu Snodgrass) and aedeagus (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in Zygentoma, basal part of penis (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in Plecoptera, penial shaft, q.v. (Tuxen, after Despax); in some Phthiraptera, basal apodeme, q.v. (Tuxen, after Schmutz; Lyal); in Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera), basal part of phallus, including connective (Tuxen, after Fennah); in some Heteroptera (Hemiptera), phallotheca, q.v. (Tuxen, after Bonhag and Wick), phallosoma, q.v. (Tuxen, after Poisson), or complex including articulatory apparatus and phallosoma (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in Coleoptera, basal piece, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in Trichoptera, proximal part of phallus if divided, as distinct from aedeagus (Tuxen, after Nielsen); in Diptera, basiphallus, q.v. (McAlpine); in Hymenoptera, gonobase + gonocoxites + volsellae (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).

prosophallus and opisthophallus (Harbach and Knight, after Belkin); in Hymenoptera, penis, q.v. (Tuxen); in Phthiraptera, penis, q.v. (Tuxen, after Schmutz).

Phleboptera, Hymenoptera, q.v. (T-B).

phoresy, a type of relationship in which one organism is carried on the body of a larger organism but does not feed on the latter, e.g., small flies traveling on the backs of dung beetles, small species of Chalcididae carried on the legs of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and triungulin larval Meloidae (Coleoptera) carried on the bodies of bees and wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) (T-B; Chapman); symbiotic relationship in which one organism associates with another species in order to obtain transportation (Steinhaus and Martignoni); see parasitism.

phoretic copulation, in several groups of wasps (Hymenoptera), copulation in which winged males carry highly modified parasitic females for considerable periods of time (Matthews and Matthews).

phragmocyttares, social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), in which the combs of the nest are wholly or partly supported by the covering envelope (T-B); see stelocyttares and poecilocyttares.

phragmocyttarous, pertaining to nests, and especially wasp nests (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), in which combs are attached laterally to the inner surface of a baglike envelope (Wilson).

phragmosis, the habit exhibited by insects and other animals of closing the entrances to nests and burrows with portions of the body (Tulloch), e.g., ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and termites (Isoptera), usually in the soldier caste (Wilson).

phragmotic head(s), in soldier termites (Isoptera), e.g., Cryptotermes (Kalotermitidae), truncated stopperlike heads used for plugging nest entrances (Gay, in CSIRO; Krishna, pers. comm.).

phthisaner, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a pupal in which the wings are suppressed and the legs, head, thorax and antennae remain abortive owing to the extraction of the juices of the larval or semipupal stage by the ectoparasite Orasema (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eucharitidae) larva (T-B, after W. M. Wheeler).

phthisergate, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a pupal worker parasitized by Orasema (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eucharitidae), which is unable to pass to the imaginal stage; an infraergatoid form (T-B, after W. M. Wheeler).

phthisodinergate, a pupated soldier ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), that never develops into an adult because of parasitism (Tulloch).

phthisogyne, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a form arising from a larva under the same conditions as a phthisaner, q.v. (T-B, after W. M. Wheeler).

phylacobiosis, a form of symbosis exhibited by Camponotus mitarius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which nests in the hills of termites and seems to be on friendly terms with them (T-B, after Wasmann).

physergate, large worker ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), capable of egg production, but used mainly for honey storage (Tulloch, after Gaul).

phytophily, the love of plants, e.g., in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), visiting, or in part living in, certain plants (T-B, after W. M. Wheeler).

pieza, mandibulate-sucking mouthparts of Hymenoptera (T-B, after Fabricius).

Piezata, Hymenoptera, q.v. (T-B, after Fabricius).

pinene, C10H16, a volatile, insect-repelling terpene found in trees and a component of the defense secretion of certain termites (Isoptera) (Chapman).

piping, the sound emitted by young honeybee queens (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) after their emergence that induces return calls ("quacking") from other virgin queens still in the royal cells and stimulates swarming behavior by the workers (Wilson).

planidium, in parasitic Diptera (e.g., Acroceridae, Nemestrinidae, and Tachinidae) and parasitic Hymenoptera (e.g., Perilampidae) with hypermetamorphosis, free-living, flattened, first-instar larvae (T-B, after Imms, Borror et al.).

planta (Latin) (pl., plantae), sole of the foot (T-B; R. W. Brown); in larval Lepidoptera, the retractible lobe at the end of the abdominal proleg on which the crochets are borne (T-B; Peterson; Chapman); in pollen-gathering Hymenoptera, sarothrum, q.v. (T-B); see euplantulae, plantar surface, and unguitrator plate.

plantar lobes, in some adult Hymenoptera, euplantulae, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

Platyoptera, an obsolete ordinal name, meaning flat and broad-winged, included Isoptera, Psocoptera, and Embiidina (T-B; Leftwich).

pleometrosis, in Formicidae (Hymenoptera), primary polygyny, q.v. (Tulloch; (Wilson).

plerergate, in Formicidae (Hymenoptera), replete, q.v. (T-B; Tulloch).

plesiobiosis, in animals, a primitive form of association approaching symbiosis (T-B); in Formicidae (Hymenoptera), the close proximity of 2 or more nests, accompanied by little or no direct contact between the colonies inhabiting them (Wilson).

pleural areas, in some Apocrita (Hymenoptera), the 3 spaces on the propodeum between the lateral and pleural carinae (T-B); the metameric divisions of the pleural region, q.v. (T-B).

pleural carina, in Apocrita (Hymenoptera), the ridge along the exterior margin of the propodeum (T-B).

plical lobe, in adult Hymenoptera, claval lobe, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

pneumophysis (pl., pneumophyses), in Apis (Hymenoptera: Apidae), cornua, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).

pocket makers, in Hymenoptera, pouch makers, q.v. (Eickwort, pers. comm.).

podeon, in adult Hymenoptera, petiole, q.v. (T-B).

podilegous, in bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), having pollen baskets on the legs (Tulloch).

poecilocyttares, social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) that build their combs around the branch or other support covered by the envelope (T-B); see stelocyttares and phragmocyttares.

poison duct, in aculeate Hymenoptera, tube connecting venom reservoir with bulb of sting (Chapman); in larval Atharicidae, Pelecorhynchidae, and Tabanidae (Diptera), duct of venom glands opening subapically on the anterior edge of the blade of the mandible (Teskey, in McAlpine).

poison glands, in certain Diptera (Asilidae and Empididae) and Heteroptera (e.g., Platymerus), salivary glands, q.v. (T-B; Chapman); in aculeate Hymenoptera, abdominal glands producing venom that is discharged through the sting (T-B; Chapman); in larval Athericidae, Pelecorhynchidae, and Tabanidae (Diptera), glands within the head capsule whose duct opens subapically on the anterior edge of the blade of the mandible (Teskey, in McAlpine).

poison sac, in aculeate Hymenoptera, the saclike reservoir for venom produced by the poison glands (T-B; Chapman).

poisoned honey, honey poisonous to man, produced in New Zealand by bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) feeding on honeydew from Scolypopa australis (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Fulgoroidea: Ricaniidae) when it feeds on tutu (Coriaria arborea Lindsay). (O'Brien and Wilson, in Nault).

pole cells, at the start of embryonic development in Diptera and some Coleoptera and Hymenoptera, certain cells of the posterior end of the egg from which the primitive germ cells are derived (T-B; Chapman).

pole plasm, at the start of embryonic development in Diptera and some Coleoptera and Hymenoptera, an area of cytoplasm at the posterior end of the egg differentiated from the rest and containing polar granules (Chapman).

pollen basket, in bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), a concave, smooth space on posterior tibia, fringed with hairs and functioning to hold collected pollen, q.v. (T-B; Chapman).

pollen comb, in adult bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidae), scopa, q.v. (Leftwich); antenna cleaner, q.v. (Leftwich), or pecten on hind tarsus, q.v. (Eickwort, pers. comm., after Snodgrass).

pollen press, in bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidae), process proximal on basitarsus of hind legs used to press pollen into pollen basket on outer surface of tibia (Chapman).

pollen storers, bumble bee species (Hymenoptera: Apidae) that store pollen in abandoned cocoons and feed it to larvae by regurgitation (Wilson); see pouch makers.

polycalic, describing a subterranean termite (Isoptera) nest with multiple calies (Noirot, in Krishna and Weesner).

polyembryony, the production of several to many embryos from a single egg, especially in parasitic insects, e.g., Halictoxenos (Strepsiptera: Stylopidae), Aphelopus (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae), and Platygaster (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) (T-B; Chapman).

polylectic, among bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), gathering pollen from many kinds of flowers (Riek, after Linsley, in CSIRO); see monolectic and oligolectic.

polymorphism, the condition of having several forms in the adult (T-B); the simultaneous occurrence of several discontinuous phenotypes or genes in a population, with the frequency even of the rarest type higher than can be maintained by recurrent mutation (Mayr); in social insects, the coexistence of 2 or more functionally different castes within the same sex (Wilson); in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), the occurrence of nonisometric growth occurring over a sufficient range of size variation within a normal mature colony to produce individuals of distinctly different proportions at the extremes of the size range (Wilson).

Polyneoptera, hypothesized monophyletic group of exopterygote Neoptera, including the extant orders Plecoptera, Embiidina, Blattaria, Isoptera, Dermaptera, Orthoptera, Zoraptera, and Phasmida, and the extinct orders Paraplecoptera, Protorthoptera, Caloneurodea, Glosselytrodea, Protelytroptera, and Protoblattodea (Hennig, after Martynov; Boudreaux); see Paraneoptera.

polypod larva, caterpillar, q.v. (T-B); larvae of Lepidoptera, some Mecoptera, and Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera), with abdominal prolegs in addition to thoracic legs (T-B; Peterson; Chapman); see apodous larva and oligopod larva.

polypodeiform larva, cylindrical, segmented, endophagous larva of many Proctotrupoidea and Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera), possessing paired, fleshy, ventral processes of approximately equal length on many of the thoracic and abdominal segments (Gauld and Bolton); see polypod larva.

Pompiloidea, superfamily within the suborder Apocrita (Hymenoptera), including the Pompilidae and Rhopalosomatidae, possessing adults with spiracle cover lobe of pronotum margined with close fine hairs, hind wing without closed basal cells, and lateral pronotum and mesopleuron (or prepectus) overlapping and with considerable free movement, the lower portion of the pronotal lobe being rounded (Riek, in CSIRO); included within the Vespoidea (sensu Gauld and Bolton, after Brothers).

postal vein, in adult Hymenoptera, costa, q.v., of wing (T-B).

postanal field, in Mastotermes (Isoptera: Mastotermitidae), the posterior lobe of the forewing (T-B, after Holmgren).

postannellus, in adult Hymenoptera, the fourth article of the antenna and second of the flagellum (T-B).

postcalcar, in Hymenoptera, proximal (trailing) edge of sawtooth (Symphyta) or sting barb (Apocrita) (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith).

postcornu (pl., postcornua), in Orthoptera, lophus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Walker); in wood-, stem- or grass-boring sawfly larvae (Hymenoptera: Symphyta), a single, suranal, sclerotized caudal projection (Peterson).

postepistoma, in adult Hymenoptera, that part of the head behind the clypeus (T-B); see frons and postclypeus.

posterior oblique suture, in adult Pompilidae (Hymenoptera), a groove extending from the episternal scrobe to the lower end of the epicranial carina (Gauld and Bolton).

posterior plates, in Hymenoptera, second gonocoxae, q.v. (Tuxen).

posterior valves, in Isoptera, inner valves, q.v. (Tuxen).

posterolateral pronotal inflection, in adult Hymenoptera, internal ridge along the posterolateral edge of the pronotum, hypothesized to be the degenerate prepectus fused to the pronotum (Gibson).

postgenal bridge, in some adult Hymenoptera, ventral bridge of head formed by median fusion of postegenae (Gauld and Bolton); see genal bridge and hypostomal bridge.

postgradular area, in adult Hymenoptera, area behind gradulus of a tergum or sternum (Tuxen, after Michener); see pregradular area.

postmarginal vein, in adult Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera), vein along the costal margin of the forewing, beyond the point where the stigmal vein arises (T-B; Riek, in CSIRO; Borror et al.).

postocellar area, in adult Hymenoptera, the region on the dorsal aspect of the head bounded by the ocellar furrow, the vertical furrows and the caudal margin of the head (T-B).

postocellar glands, in the honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae), a mass of glands situated just above the ocelli in the drones and queen (T-B, after Bordas).

postpectoral carina, in adult Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera), carina at posterior rim of mesosternum (van Achterberg, pers. comm., after Townes).

postpectus, the under surface of the metathorax; in Hymenoptera, the fused sternum and pleuron (T-B).

postpetiole, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), the second segment of the pedicel when it has 2 segments, being abdominal segment III (T-B, after Comstock; Wilson).

postscutellum, in adult Diptera, postnotum, q.v. (T-B, after MacGillivray, Curran; Saether), or subscutellum, q.v. (McAlpine); in adult Hymenoptera, dorsellum, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

postspiracular sclerite, in most Symphyta (Hymenoptera), sclerite positioned between the pronotum and mesepisternum and between the mesothoracic spiracle and basalare (Gibson).

poststigmatal cell, that part of the marginal cell beyond the stigma in bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea); the second radial1 of Comstock (T-B, after Smith).

pouch makers, bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) species that build special wax pouches on the sides of larval cells and fill them with pollen on which the larvae feed directly (Wilson); see pollen stores.

preanal lobe, in adult Hymenoptera, claval lobe, q.v., of hind wing (T-B, after Comstock).

preaxillary excision, in the hind wings of Hymenoptera, a second excision of the apex of claval furrow (T-B, after Comstock).

precalcar, in Hymenoptera, distal (leading) edge of sawtooth (Symphyta) or sting barb (Apocrita) (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith).

precoxal suture, in some adult Hymenoptera, groove near base of midcoxa extending sinuously forward (Gauld and Bolton); see stenopleural suture.

predaceous, predacious, living by preying upon other organisms, e.g., Odonata, Mantodea, Heteroptera (e.g., Reduviidae), larvae and many adults of Megaloptera, Raphidioptera, Planipennia, Mecoptera (Bittacidae), Diptera (many families, especially as larvae), Coleoptera (e.g., Adephaga; larval Lampyridae and Coccinellidae), and Hymenoptera (T-B; Borror et al.).

pregradular area, in adult Hymenoptera, the slightly raised area in front of gradulus which slides on the duplication of the preceeding tergum or sternum (Tuxen, after Michener).

prelabial sclerite, in many larval Ichneumonoidea (Hymenoptera), a more or less Y-shaped sclerited supporting the opening of the silk press (Gauld and Bolton, after Short).

prepectus, an anterior marginal sclerite of the sternopleural areas of a segment, set off by a transverse suture continuous through the sternum and episternum (T-B, after Snodgrass); in adult Hymenoptera, sclerite between the pronotum and mesepisternum, site of origin of the spiracular occlusor muscle (T-B, after Comstock; Gibson); in some Tubulifera (Thysanoptera), paired prothoracic sternites (Stannard).

preputium (pl., preputia), the external membranous covering of the penis (T-B); in Orthoptera, sheath of penis, q.v. (transl. "prépuce" Chopard; Tuxen); in Coleoptera, second connecting membrane, q.v. (transl. "prépuce" Tuxen); in Lepidoptera, vesica, q.v. (Tuxen, after Hofmann); in Diptera, juxta, q.v. (Tuxen, after Hall); in Hymenoptera, basal ring, q.v. (Tuxen, after Konow), basal ring + bases of gonocoxites + volsellae (Tuxen, after Hartig), or bases of parapenial lobes plus volsellae (Tuxen, after Rohwer).

presaepium, in larval Camponotini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), shallow depression on the ventral surface of certain anterior abdominal somites (G.C. and J. Wheeler).

prescutal suture, a transverse groove of the mesonotum or metanotum behind the antecostal suture, setting off a prescutum from the scutum, being largely obsolescent in adult Diptera (T-B, after Snodgrass); in adult Hymenoptera, notaulus, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

prescutum, the anterior area of the mesonotum or metanotum in front of the scutum, between the antecostal suture and the prescutal suture (T-B, after Snodgrass, Imms); in adult Diptera, presutural area, q.v. (McAlpine, after Curran); in adult Hymenoptera, median mesoscutal lobe, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

presoldier, in Isoptera, an intermediate developmental stage between larva, pseudergate, or nymph and the definitive, mature soldier form, apparently not yet functional for defense (Miller, in Krishna and Weesner).

prestigma, in some adult Braconidae and Bethylidae (Hymenoptera), an accessory enlargement of pterostigma (Riek, in CSIRO); in adult Vespidae (Hymenoptera), extension of radial sector (Rs) toward pterostigma (Carpenter pers. comm., after Carpenter and Cumming).

primary allometrosis, the alliance of females of different species of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) to found a single colony (Tulloch, after Wasmann).

primary reproductive, in termites (Isoptera), colony founding or derived from winged adult (Miller).

primary royal pair, in Isoptera, the king () and the queen (reproductive ) of the colony (T-B, after Comstock).

proboscidial fossa, in adult Hymenoptera, preoral cavity, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

proboscis, any extended mouth structure (T-B); in Hemiptera, rostrum, q.v. (T-B); in adult Trichoptera, extended and elongate mouthparts, e.g., in Plectrotarsidae, Kokiriidae and Dipseudopsidae (Neboiss); in adult Lepidoptera, the coiled tube formed from the fused galeae of maxillae (T-B; Chapman); in adult Diptera, extensile mouthparts (T-B; Leftwich) or just labium (T-B, after McGillivray); in bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), elongate labium (Leftwich); see rostrum.

processus articularis, in Siphonaptera, telomere, q.v. (Tuxen, after Dampf); in Hymenoptera, dorsal ramus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Oeser).

processus medianus, in Hymenoptera, notum (in part) and some of the rami (Tuxen, after Oeser).

procidentia (pl., procidentiae), in some Symphyta (Hymenoptera), a fluting on abdominal tergum VIII under which gonapophyses are everted (T-B; Tuxen, after Ross).

proctodaeal feeding, in Kalotermitidae (Isoptera), social feeding on liquid excrement containing fragments of wood and intestinal flagellates of workers resulting in a transfer of symbionts (Chapman).

proctodeal food, in Isoptera, food passed from anus to mouth by adults (Tulloch).

Proctotrupoidea, poorly defined superfamily within the Apocrita (Hymenoptera), including the Proctotrupidae and other families, possessing adults with a single foretibial spur, hind wing lacking closed cells, lateral pronotum vertically grooved for reception of forefemur, spiracle covering lobe of pronotum reaching back to tegula and not margined with close fine hairs, no subantennal groove, and hind tibia without spurs modified for preening (Riek, in CSIRO; Gauld and Bolton); see Ceraphronoidea.

progressive provisioning, the act of providing the larva with meals at intervals during its development, e.g., solitary bees and wasps Hymenoptera: Aculeata) (Wilson); see mass provisioning.

proleg, any process or appendage that serves the purpose of, but is not homologous with, a leg (T-B); in Lepidoptera and most Symphyta (Hymenoptera), hollow, paired, cylindrical outgrowths of the abdominal segments used in locomotion (T-B; Chapman); foreleg, q.v. (T-B, after MacGillivray); in Diptera larvae, round or fleshy tubercles usually located in pairs ventrally on the prothorax and terminal segment, on the terminal segment alone, or on one or more intermediate abdominal segments (Teskey, in McAlpine); in larval Chironomidae (Diptera), parapod, q.v. (Saether).

premesonotal sclerite, in some adult Hymenoptera, united pronotum and mesonotum (Gauld and Bolton).

pronope, in adult Zelinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a mediodorsal pit of the pronotum (van Achterberg).

pronotal lobe(s), in Orthoptera, large descending lateral lobes, which are usually subvertical and form the sides of the prothorax (Key, in CSIRO); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), posterior pronotal lobe, q.v. (Andersen); in many adult Aculeata and Evanoidea (Hymenoptera), posterolateral region of the pronotum extending over the lateral edge of the mesepisternum so as to cover the mesothoracic spiracle (Gibson; Gauld and Bolton).

pronymph, the newly hatched nymph of Odonata, Orthoptera, Blattaria, Mantodea, and Aphididae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), which shows a more or less embryonic appearance, being invested with a shining chitinous sheath, being a stage of extremely short duration (T-B, after Imms; Peterson; O'Farrell, Key, in CSIRO); in certain holometabolous insects, e.g., sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta), pharate pupal stage in which the larval tissues are completely broken down and the imaginal tissues are just beginning to build up (T-B, after J. B. Smith; Hinton and Mackerras, in CSIRO).

pronymphal phase, in Symphyta (Hymenoptera), pronymph, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

propodeal foramen, in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), socket of propodeum in which gaster articulates (Gauld and Bolton).

propodeal orifice, in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), propodeal foramen, q.v. (Carpenter, pers. comm., after Richards).

propodeal spiracles, in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), pair of spiracles on propodeum (Gauld and Bolton).

propodeal teeth, in adult Myrmecinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), spines on propodeum which protect the pedicel (Brown, pers. comm.).

propodeal triangle, in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), metapostnotum, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

propodeum, in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), the first abdominal segment when it forms a part of the alitrunk (T-B, after Comstock).

propolis, a collective term for resins and waxes collected by bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) and brought to their nests for use in construction and sealing fissures in the nest wall (T-B; Wilson).

prostigma, in adult Hymenoptera, pterostigma, q.v. (T-B, after Henneguy).

protective layer, in galls of Cynipidae (Hymenoptera), a sclerified tissue best developed in galls of the European subgenus Cynips, the cell walls being thickened and the cells containing many crystalline materials (T-B, after Kinsey).

protodichthadiigyne, in Dorylinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a highly fertile intermediate between ergatoid and dichthadiigyne (Tulloch).

protopod larva, a larva with undifferentiated internal and external organs, e.g., first instar larva of some endoparasitic Hymenoptera (T-B, after Folsom and Wardle; Chapman).

proximal rhachis, in Hymenoptera, portion of rhachis on either gonapophysis remaining attached to ventral ramus at bases of gonopods proximal to end of notum (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith).

psammophore, in adult Formicidae and Vespidae (Hymenoptera), group of ammochaetae on underside of head (Brown, pers. comm., after Sartschi; G. C. and J. Wheeler; Carpenter, pers. comm., after Carpenter and Cumming).

pseudergate, a caste found in the lower termites (Isoptera), comprised of individuals having regressed from nymphal stages by moults eliminating the wing buds, or being derived from larvae having undergone nondifferentiating moults, serving as the principal elements of the worker caste, but remaining capable of developing into other castes by further moulting (Wilson).

pseudoceps, in Hymenoptera, distal rhachis + legula (Tuxen, after Ross).

pseudocercus (pl., pseudocerci), in Archaeognatha, Zygentoma, and Ephemeroptera, filum terminale, q.v. (T-B, Tuxen); in larval Coleoptera, urogomphus, q.v. (Borror et al.); in larval Symphyta (Hymenoptera), caudal protuberance, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

pseudogerm, multicellular fragment of trophamnion liberated into host hemocoel on eclosion of braconid parasites (Hymenoptera), where they continue to feed as teratocytes, which later become vacuolated with their nuclei breaking down (Tulloch, after Hinton, Jones; Gauld and Bolton).

pseudogyna, a insect that reproduces without impregnation (T-B); in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), pseudogyne, q.v. (T-B).

pseudogyne, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), an apterous which combines the size and gaster of the worker with the thoracic characters of the queen (T-B).

pseudonest, in Bombus (Hymenoptera: Apidae), a gathered mass of nest-building material frequently found around the entrance to nests; sometimes used to shelter workers (Tulloch, after Gaul).

Pseudoneuroptera, old taxon name for net-winged insects with incomplete metamorphosis, including the present Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera, Isoptera and Psocoptera (T-B).

pseudosessile, having the abdomen so close to the thorax as to seem sessile, as in some Aculeata (Hymenoptera) (T-B).

pseudosoldier, in Isoptera, presoldier, q.v. (Krishna, pers. comm.).

pseudoworker, in Isoptera, pseudergate, q.v. (Krishna, pers. comm.).

pterergate, an exceptional form of worker ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) having the rudiments of wings (T-B; Leftwich).

pterodinergate, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), an individual of the soldier caste with vestigial wings (Tulloch, after Gaul).

pterostigma, on fore- and hind wings of Odonata and Mecoptera and on the forewings of many Hymenoptera and Psocoptera, a pigmented spot or cell on the anterior margin of the wing, usually near or just behind the apex of vein R1, having a greater mass than an equivalent area of adjacent wing and by its inertia influencing the movement of the whole wing membrane during flight (T-B; Leftwich; Chapman).

pupivorous, feeding upon pupae, especially applied to Hymenoptera (T-B).

purple brood, poisoning of unsealed brood of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) foraging on southern leatherwood, Cyrilla racemiflora (Cyrillaceae), in which the brood turn purple (Steinhaus and Martignoni).

pwaingyet, the commercial name for the cerumen of the East Indian stingless bee Trigona laeviceps (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (T-B).

pygidial plate, in some Apoidea, Formicoidea, Sphecoidea, and Scolioidea (Hymenoptera: Aculeata), a usually flat area surrounded by a carina or line and sometimes produced as an apical projection present on the 6th gastral tergite in females and 7th gastral tergite of males (Riek, in CSIRO).

pygidium (pl., pygidia), the tergum of the last visible segment of the abdomen, whatever its numerical designation (T-B); in Ephemeroptera, epiproct, q.v. (Tuxen); in Plecoptera, supraanal lobe, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton); in Dermaptera, one of the 3 opisthomeres, q.v. (Tuxen); in Nymphes (Planipennia: Nymphidae), mediuncus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton); in Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea), a strongly sclerotized, unsegmented region terminating the abdomen, following the first 4 abdominal segments (T-B, after Comstock); in adult Coleoptera, the segment left exposed by the elytra (T-B); in Siphonaptera, sensilial plate, q.v. (Lewis, pers. comm.); in adult Hymenoptera, epipygium, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton); see epiproct, supraanal plate, supraanale, and suranal plate.

pygostyles, in adult Hymenoptera, (one-segmented) cerci, q.v. (Riek, in CSIRO).

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