The Social Insects Glossary

This glossary of entomological terms is based on Torre Bueno's Glossary, from which all terms relevant to ants, wasps, bees and termites where extracted.

  A | B - F | G - M | N - P | Q - U | V - Z  

quadrate plates, in Hymenoptera, ninth hemitergites, q.v. (T-B, after Imms; Tuxen, after Snodgrass).

queen, member of the reproductive caste in semisocial or eusocial species (Wilson); in Isoptera, usually, a dealated, fertilized imago, or primary reproductive, in an established colony; sometimes used as a term for any winged imago (Krishna, pers. comm.).

queen cell, in honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), royal cell, q.v. (Norris, in CSIRO).

queenright, referring to a colony, especially a honey bee colony (Hymenoptera: Apidae), that contains a functional queen (Wilson).

queen substance, originally, the set of pheromones by which the queen honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) continuously attracts and controls the reproductive activities of the workers (Wilson); trans-9-keto-2-decenoic acid, the most potent component of the pheromone mixture, produced by the mandibular glands of queen bees (Wilson; Leftwich).

radial cell, a wing cell bordered anteriorly by a branch of the radius (T-B, after Comstock; Borror et al.); in adult Hymenoptera, marginal cell, q.v. (Borror et al.).

radial fold, in adult Hymenoptera, a more or less distinct system of folds in the distal part of the forewing (Gauld and Bolton); see median flexion line.

radicle, scape, q.v. (T-B); narrowed base of antennal scape, e.g., in adult Hymenoptera with geniculate antennae (Riek, in CSIRO); see scape.

radix (pl., radices), wing base, q.v. (T-B); in adult Hymenoptera, basal segment of gonopod (Tuxen, after Ross).

radix forcipitis, in Hymenoptera, gonocoxite, q.v. (Tuxen, after Radoszkowski).

rake, in adult Apoidea (Hymenoptera), row of stout spines along the apical margin of the hind tibia used to remove pollen from the combs of the opposite hind leg (Chapman).

ramellus, in the forewings of Ichneumonoidea (Hymenoptera), the distal stump of media when it is otherwise incomplete (T-B, after Tillyard).

rami of first valvulae, in Hymenoptera, slender basal parts of first gonapophyses (Tuxen, after Michener).

rami of second valvulae, in Hymenoptera, slender basal parts of second gonapophyses (Tuxen, after Michener).

rami valvularum, in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), sclerotized parts of leaves connecting gonapophyses to gonocoxites and body wall (T-B, after Snodgrass; Tuxen); in Hymenoptera, rami of first and second gonapophyses (Tuxen, after Michener).

ramus (pl., rami), a branchlike division of any structure or appendage (T-B); in adult Lepidoptera, elongate branch of a pectinate antenna (Common); in Collembola, one of the free ends of the tenaculum (T-B); in Lepidoptera, paired, lateral or ventrolateral process of abdominal sternum VIII, directed caudad, flattened, spinulose or hairy, sometimes hooked or recurved (Tuxen, after Stichel); in Hymenoptera, gonocoxite, q.v. (Tuxen, after Bradley); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), posterior connecting leaf of gonocoxite VIII, q.v., and/or anterior connecting leaf of gonocoxite IX, q.v., or reinforced part of any of them (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in Chironomidae (Diptera), apodeme in oviduct of genitalia (Saether), equally lateral arms of genital fork.

reclivous vein, in adult Zelinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a transverse vein of which the anterior end is further removed from the wing base than the posterior end (van Achterberg); see inclivous vein.

rectal pouch, in Isoptera, paunch, q.v. (Chapman); in larval Scarabaeidae, and adult Dytsicidae and Silphidae (Coleoptera), colon, q.v. (Gay, Britton, in CSIRO; Chapman).

recurrent nervure, in adult Hymenoptera, recurrent vein, q.v., of wing (T-B, after Norton).

recurrent vein, in adult Hymenoptera, (second) mediocubital crossvein q.v. (T-B; Riek, after Ross, in CSIRO); in many adult Planipennia, humeral crossvein when recurved toward the base of wing, being frequently pectinately branched (T-B, after Comstock; Borror et al.).

replete, an individual ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) whose crop is greatly distended with liquid food, to the extent that the abdominal segments are pulled apart and the intersegmental membranes are stretched tight, serving as living reservoirs, regurgitating food on demand to their nestmates (T-B; Tulloch; Wilson).

respiratory horn, on surface of eggs of some Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, and Diptera, protuberances with plastrons on their surface (Hinton and Mackerras, in CSIRO); in pupal Diptera, respiratory trumpet, q.v. (Colless and McAlpine, in CSIRO).

retinaculum (pl., retinacula), in Collembola, tenaculum, q.v. (Leftwich; Wallace and Mackerras, in CSIRO; Chapman); in Pectinopygus (Phthiraptera), retinacular comb, q.v. (Tuxen, after Cummings); in larval Coleoptera, the toothlike process in the middle of the mandible (T-B); in adult Lepidoptera, a hook, loop, or specialized scales attached to the under side of the forewings near the base, to receive the frenulum (T-B), and of 3 types: subcostal, subdorsal (Braun), and subanal (Davis); in Hymenoptera, horny, moveable scales serving to move the sting or to prevent its being darted out too far (T-B).

rhachis (pl., rhaches or rhachies), ridge; stem (R. W. Brown); in adult Hymenoptera and other orders, tongue along ventral ramus of each gonapophysis IX fitting into aulax of dorsal ramus of corresponding gonapophysis VIII below (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith); see rachis.

rhinarium (pl., rhinaria), in adult Odonata, anteclypeus, q.v. (T-B); in Aphididae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), primary sensorium, q.v. (Stoetzel, in Stehr); in adult Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera), multiporous plate sensillum, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

royal cell, in honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the large, pitted, waxen cell constructed by workers to rear queen larvae (Wilson); in some species of termites (Isoptera), the special cell in which the queen is housed (Wilson).

royal chamber, the space reserved for the accommodation of king and queen termites (Isoptera), or the space reserved for the queen of an ant colony (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (Tulloch).

royal jelly, in Apidae (Hymenoptera), a material supplied by workers to larvae in royal cells which is necessary for the transformation of larvae into queens, secreted primarily by the hypopharyngeal glands and consisting of a rich mixture of nutrient substances, many possessing a complex chemical structure (T-B; Wilson); see worker jelly.

sacbrood, a lethal disease of larval honey bees, (Hymenoptera: Apidae) caused by a virus infecting cells of the fat body, causing death in the prepupal stage after cocoon spinning (Steinhaus and Martignoni).

sacciform larva, in some Dryinidae, Mymaridae, and Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera), an ovoid featureless larva that lacks visible segmentation and setae (Gauld and Bolton).

sage apple, an aromatic gall produced on the sage plant Salvia pomifera by members of the genus Aulax (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), eaten as a delicacy in the Middle East (Leftwich).

sagitta (Latin) (pl., sagittae), in Hymenoptera, digitus, q.v. (Tuxen) or volsella, q.v. (Tuxen, after Rohwer), paramere, q.v. (Tuxen, after Thomson).

sand basket, in adult Aculeata (Hymenoptera), psammophore, q.v. (Brown, pers. comm.; Carpenter, pers. comm.).

sarothrum, in adult Apoidea (Hymenoptera), basitarsus (q.v.) of hind leg (T-B).

saw, in Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera), first and second valvulae (ventral and inner valves) (Tuxen); in Hymenoptera, terebra, q.v. (Tuxen).

saw guide, in Symphyta (Hymenoptera), the 2 external flattened plates of the ovipositor (T-B).

sawblade, in Hymenoptera, first gonapophyses, q.v. (Tuxen).

sawfly, member of the suborder Symphyta (Hymenoptera) (Riek, in CSIRO).

sawsheath, in Symphyta (Hymenoptera), gonoplacs, q.v. (Tuxen).

sawtooth, in Symphyta (Hymenoptera), cutting projections on ventral ramus of gonapophysis VIII (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith).

scale, a flat unicellular outgrowth of the body wall of many groups of insects, of various shapes and usually representing modified setae (T-B, after Snodgrass); on body and wings of adult Lepidoptera, frequently a hairlike structure or flattened plate, the latter usually consisting of 2 lamellae, often with a space between containing pigment and attached to the cuticle by a short pedicel (T-B, after Imms; Chapman); in termites (Isoptera), wing scale, q.v. (T-B); in most Coccoidea (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), a covering made of waxy substances for the protection of the eggs, nymphs, and adults (T-B; Kosztarab and Kozár); in Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea), test, q.v. (T-B); in Psyllidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Psylloidea), lerp, q.v. (Woodward et al, in CSIRO).

scapula (pl., scapulae), shoulder (T-B); in adult Hymenoptera, parapsis, q.v. (T-B; Borror et al.); in adult Lepidoptera, tegula, q.v. (T-B); see humerus.

scapular shield, in Isoptera, wing scale, q.v. (Thorne, pers. comm.).

sclerora, in adult Hymenoptera, ventral ramus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Ross).

scobina (Latin) (pl., scobinae), rasp (R. W. Brown); in Symphyta (Hymenoptera), rasp on distal portion of dorsal ramus of gonapophysis VIII (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith).

Scolioidea, superfamily within the Aculeata (Hymenoptera), including the family Scoliidae, possessing often apterous adults (both males and females), with pronotal lobe reaching back to tegula, antennae not geniculate, forewing with closed marginal cell, and distal quarter or more of wing membranes longitudinally striolate with a densely corrugated appearance (Gauld and Bolton, after Brown); Scolioidea + Tiphioidea (Riek, in CSIRO); included with the Vespoidea (sensu Gauld and Bolton, after Brothers).

scopa (pl., scopae), a brush (T-B); in Lepidoptera, fringe of long, dense and sometimes modified scales along caudal margin of abdominal segment VIII (Tuxen, after Diakonoff); in Symphyta (Hymenoptera), an inflated, often pilose, apicoventral flange running most of the length of a gonostylus (Tuxen, after Ross); in adult bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), thick hair covering the hind tibia (T-B; Riek in CSIRO, Gauld and Bolton) (see ventral scopa).

scopula (pl., scopulae), a small, dense tuft of hair (T-B); in bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), scopa, q.v., on hind tibia (T-B).

scopulipedes, bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), with pollen-gathering structures on the tarsi (T-B).

scrobal suture, in many adult Aculeata (Hymenoptera), a groove extending between the episternal scrobe and the anterior oblique suture (Gauld and Bolton).

scrobes, mandibular scrobe, q.v. (T-B); grooves formed for the reception or concealment of an appendage (T-B); in adult Curculionoidea (Coleoptera), a pair of grooves, one on each side of the rostrum, in which the antennae can rest (T-B; Britton, in CSIRO); in many Chalcididae (Hymenoptera), single concavity formed from united antennal scrobes (Gauld and Bolton); see episternal scrobe.

scutellum (pl., scutella), any small, shield-shaped plate (Leftwich); the posterior division of the notum of the meso- and metathorax (T-B); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), the triangular part of the mesothorax, generally placed between the bases of the hemelytra, but in some groups partly or completely overlapping them (T-B); in adult Coleoptera, the triangular piece at the base and between the elytra (T-B); in adult Diptera, mesoscutellum, q.v. (T-B; Colless and McAlpine, in CSIRO); see scutumin some adult Symphyta (Hymenoptera), axilla, q.v. (T-B, after Snodgrass).

scutoprescutum, in adult Hymenoptera, median mesoscutal lobe, q.v. (T-B, after Imms).

scutum (pl., scuta), any shield-shaped plate (Leftwich); the second dorsal sclerite of the meso- and metathorax, being the middle division of the notum and occupying most of the thoracic dorsum in Diptera (T-B; McAlpine); in Melitaea (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), wide, smooth area formed from posterior part of sternum IX or IX + X (Tuxen, after Higgins); in adult Diptera, postsutural area, q.v. (McAlpine, after some authors); in certain Hymenoptera, the major part of the alinotum set off by a transscutal suture, but not identical to the scutum of generalized insects (T-B, after Snodgrass); in ticks (Acari), the shield (T-B).

second costal cell, in adult Symphyta (Hymenoptera), subcostal cell, q.v. (T-B, after Packard).

second-form reproductive, in Isoptera, nymphoid reproductive, q.v. (Wilson).

second gonapophyses, in insects, gonapophyses of abdominal segment IX, q.v. (Tuxen); in Hymenoptera, parameres, q.v. (Tuxen, after Michener).

second valves, in Isoptera, second gonapophyses, q.v. (Tuxen); in Thysanoptera, dorsal blades of ovipositor borne by abdominal segment IX, q.v. (Tuxen).

second valvifers, in insects, second gonapophyses, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in Phasmida, sclerites at base of inner and superior valvulae (Tuxen); in Grylloidea (Orthoptera), specialization of basal portion of posterior valvulae (Tuxen); in Embiidina, perhaps a sclerotized flap beyond caudal margin of sternum VIII (Tuxen); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), gonocoxites of abdominal segment IX, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in Aradidae and Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) (incorrect usage), laterotergites IX, q.v. (Tuxen, after Leston); in Hymenoptera, second gonocoxae, q.v. (Tuxen).

second valvulae, in insects, second gonapophyses, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in Odonata, median gonapophyses, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in Blattopteroidea, valvulae internae, q.v. (Tuxen); in Isoptera, inner valves, q.v. (Tuxen); in Orthoptera, inner valvulae, q.v. (Tuxen); in Psocoptera, valvae dorsales, q.v. (Tuxen, after Broadhead).

secondary medisternite, in Isoptera, median sclerite in intersegmental membrane between abdominal sterna VIII and IX (Tuxen, after Geyer); in Isoptera, median sclerite in intersegmental membrane between sterna VIII and IX posterior to medisternite (Tuxen, after Browman).

secondary reproductive, in Isoptera, nymphoid reproductive, q.v. (Wilson).

seed-crushers, the huge-headed soldier ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (T-B, after W. M. Wheeler).

sensilla linearea, in adult Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera), multiporous plate sensilla, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

sensory palp, in Hymenoptera, gonoplac, q.v. (Tuxen).

sericos, in larval Hymenoptera, opening for the duct of the silk glands (Gauld and Bolton); see salivos.

serictery, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), sericos, q.v. (Brown, pers. comm.).

serriferous, possessing a sawlike ovipositor in the , as in sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) (T-B).

serrula (pl., serrulae), in Hymenoptera, subserrations on sawteeth (Symphyta) or sting barbs (Apocrita) along ventral ramus of gonapophysis VIII (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith).

sessile, attached or fastened, incapable of moving from place to place (Borror et al.); attached directly without a stem or petiole, e.g., in Symphyta (Hymenoptera), having the abdomen broadly attached for nearly its full width to the thorax (T-B; Borror et al.).

Sessiliventres, Hymenoptera having no narrow constriction between the thorax and the abdomen, i.e., Symphyta, q.v. (T-B; Leftwich).

shaft of sting, in Hymenoptera, stylet, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).

sheath, a structure enclosing others (T-B); in Lepidoptera, diaphragma, q.v. (Tuxen, after Evans); in Hymenoptera, second gonocoxa, q.v. (Tuxen).

sheath of ovipositor, in Hymenoptera, gonoplacs, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).

sheath of sting, in Hymenoptera, gonapophyses, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass) or gonoplacs, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).

shield, a sclerotized plate covering the greater part of the dorsal half of a segment, e.g., prothoracic shield of many larval Coleoptera and Lepidoptera (Peterson); in Hymenoptera, gonostylus + volsella (transl. "bouclier" Radoszkowski, in Tuxen).

short-tongued bees, group of bees within the Apoidea (Hymenoptera), including the Melittidae, Colletidae, and Halictidae, possessing adults with a glossa that is shorter than the prementum (Riek, in CSIRO); see long-tongued bees.

signum (Latin) (pl., signa), mark (R. W. Brown); in Lepidoptera, sclerotized, usually spined or scobinate structures in wall of corpus bursae (Tuxen, after Pierce); in Glossina (Diptera: Glossinidae), a sclerite in uterine wall (Tuxen); in adult Aculeata (Hymenoptera), anteroventral line on mesopleuron (Carpenter, pers. comm., after Richards, and after Bohart and Menke).

silk, a continuous, filamentous, hardened protein produced by the labial glands of larval Lepidoptera, Trichoptera, Siphonaptera, and some Hymenoptera, by the accessory glands in Hydrophilus (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), silk glands in basitarsus of foreleg in Embiidina, and by the Malpighian tubules in some larval Planipennia, used by Trichoptera in prey capture, as anchor lines, in retreat or case construction, and by all of the above insects to construct cocoons for pupa or eggs (T-B; Chapman).

silk-button gall, small, brown, hairy galls shaped like buttons with a central pit, produced on oak (Quercus) leaves by the gall wasp Neuroterus numismalis (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) (Leftwich).

Siricoidea, superfamily within the Symphyta (Hymenoptera), including the families Siricidae, Orussidae, Xiphydriidae, and Anaxyelidae, possessing adults with mesoscutellum completely separated from scutum by a suture; axillae defined, and scrobal grooves present for reception of the basal segments of the antennae (Riek, in CSIRO; Borror et al.); see Orussoidea.

social, living in more or less organized communities or aggregations of individuals, as certain Hymenoptera (T-B); see social insect.

social bees, eusocial bees belonging to the family Apidae (Hymenoptera) (Borror et al.); see solitary bees.

social insect, in the strict sense, an insect that belongs to a eusocial species, e.g., an ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a termite (Isoptera), or one of the eusocial wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) or bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) (Wilson); in the broad sense, an insect that belongs to a presocial or eusocial species (Wilson).

social wasps, eusocial wasps belonging to the family Vespidae (Hymenoptera) (Borror et al.); see solitary wasps.

socii (sing., socius), lateral appendicular processes of the tenth segment in Trichoptera and Lepidoptera, possibly homologous with the cercuslike appendages on the tenth segment in lower Hymenoptera (T-B, after Snodgrass); in Trichoptera, superior appendages, q.v. (Tuxen); in Lepidoptera, sclerotized, paired, hairy pads, sometimes petiolate, on caudal margin of tegumen ventrad of base of uncus (Tuxen, after Pierce).

sociotomy, in termites (Isoptera), colony fission, q.v. (Wilson).

soldier(s), a member of a worker subcaste usually specialized for colony defense (Wilson); in termites (Isoptera), sexually undeveloped form, in which the head is much enlarged, and the mandibles are modified in various ways, and used in defense of the colony (T-B; Krishna, pers. comm.); in Aphidoidea (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), aggressive immature forms that "bite" with their stylets (Pemphigidae), or used frontal horns (Hormaphididae) to defend the colony against predators (Myazaki); in certain ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), major worker, q.v. (T-B).

soldier nymph, in Isoptera, presoldier, q.v. (Krishna, pers. comm.).

soldier termite, in Isoptera, soldier, q.v. (Leftwich).

solitary bees, bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), e.g., mining bees (Andrenidae and Halictidae), carpenter bees (Xylocopidae), and cuckoo bees (Nomadidae), in which each makes her own nest without the cooperation of others, and there are no separate queen and worker castes (Leftwich; Riek, in CSIRO); see social bees.

solitary wasps, wasps (Hymenoptera: Apocrita) that do not live in colonies, e.g., Eumeninae and Masarinae (Vespidae), Pompilidae, and Sphecidae (Leftwich; Riek, in CSIRO); see social wasps.

spado (Latin), in bees (Apoidea) and ants (Formicidae) (Hymenoptera), worker, q.v. (T-B).

spangle gall, small, flat, red gall about 1 mm across on the surface of the leaves of oak (Quercus spp.) produced by gall wasp Neuroterus quercusbaccarum and related species (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) (Leftwich).

spatha (Latin) (pl., spathae), a broad blade (T-B; R. W. Brown); in Tipulidae (Diptera), ejaculator apodeme, q.v. (Tuxen, after Westhoff); in Hymenoptera, parameres, q.v. (T-B, after Snodgrass; Tuxen, after Boulangé); in Aculeata (Hymenoptera), partially desclerotized, distally produced body of combined gonapophyses IX and notum (less distal rhaches) extending independently on either side of gonapophysis (T-B, after J. B. Smith; Tuxen, after E.L. Smith).

spathal rod, in Hymenoptera, thickening of spatha extending to ergot (Tuxen).

speculum (pl., specula), a transparent area or spot on wings of some Lepidoptera; in Orthoptera, the glassy areas at base of tegmina in Orthoptera that serve as sounding boards (T-B); a spot on the neck of some larval Lepidoptera; in adult Ichneumonoidea, upper area of mesepisternum (Gauld and Bolton); in many adult Chalcididae (Hymenoptera), a hairless area of wing membrane running obliquely from parastigma to hind margin of wing (Gauld and Bolton).

spermathecal furrow, in Isoptera, spermatic groove, q.v. (Tuxen, after Weesner).

spermatic groove, in Isoptera, median groove or furrow in roof of vestibulum, extending from external opening of spermathecal duct backward, sometimes up to opening of accessory glands (Tuxen, after Holmgren).

spermora, the mouth of the duct of the spermatheca (T-B, after MacGillivray); in Isoptera, external opening of spermathecal duct (Tuxen, after Geyer).

Sphecoidea, superfamily within the Apocrita (Hymenoptera), including solitary wasps of the family Sphecidae possessing adults with unbranched body hairs, posterior lateral lobes of pronotum not reaching to tegula, metapleural glands absent, and medial tibial spur of hind tibia modified into a calcar (Riek, in CSIRO); Sphecoidea + Apoidea (Gauld and Bolton, after Brothers).

spicula (pl., spiculae), in Hymenoptera, sting, q.v. (T-B), or ovipositor, q.v. (T-B), or first gonapophyses, q.v. (Tuxen, after Westwood); in Euthalia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), cornutus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Roepke); see spicule.

spiculum (pl., spicula), in Coleoptera, spicules, q.v. (Tuxen); in Hymenoptera, anterior median apodeme of abdominal sternum IX (Tuxen, after Kluge); see spicule.

spiked pea gall, small green gall resembling peas with spikes, formed on the leaves of roses by larvae of the gall wasp Diplolepis nervosa (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) (Leftwich); see pea gall.

spira, in some Cynipidae (Hymenoptera), coiled ovipositor (Tuxen).

spiracle cover lobe, in some Apocrita (Hymenoptera), pronotal lobe, q.v., covering mesothoracic spiracle (Riek, in CSIRO).

spiracular area, in some adult Hymenoptera, the anterior of the 3 areas between the lateral and the pleural carinae on the propodeum (T-B).

spiracular plate(s), peritreme, q.v. (Borror et al.); in larval Diptera, more or less well-defined plate on which are located the spiracular opening and the ecdysial scar (Teskey, in McAlpine); in Hymenoptera, eighth hemitergites, q.v. (Tuxen).

spirochaete, bacterium, belonging to the order Spirochaetales, in which the cell is slender, spiral in shape, flexible and 0.003--0.500 mm long, being pathogens and also an essential part of the symbiosis between termites (Isoptera) and flagellate protozoans (Allaby).

spongy parenchyma, in galls produced by Cynipidae (Hymenoptera), the material occupying the central portion of a gall and constituting the major material of all the spongy and more hollow oak-apples of the genus Cynips (T-B, after Kinsey).

spoon, in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae), labellum, q.v. (T-B); in Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera), spoon-shaped, usually ventrodistal, process of inner face of valva (transl. "cuiller" Reverdin, in Tuxen); in Lepidoptera, distal elongation, probably of sacculus (transl. "cuiller" Viette, in Tuxen).

squama (pl., squamae), any scalelike structure (T-B; Leftwich); in adult Odonata, palpiger, q.v. (Borror et al.): in adult Dermaptera, sclerotized portion of remigium of wing (Giles, in CSIRO); in Miridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), ovivalvula, q.v. (Tuxen, after Wagner); in adult Lepidoptera, tegula, q.v. (T-B; Chapman); in adult Diptera, calypter (T-B; Chapman; McAlpine); in adult Chironomidae (Diptera), proximal lobe of wing (Saether); in Hymenoptera, digitus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Salt) or gonostylus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Thomson); see lamella.

staphyla, a group of gongylidia, the swollen hyphal tips produced by fungi that live in symbiosis with attine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (Wilson).

statary phase, the period in the activity cycle of an army ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) colony during which the colony is relatively quiescent and does not move from site to site, and the queen lays the eggs and the bulk of the brood is in the egg and pupal stages (Wilson); see nomadic phase.

stelocyttares, social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), in which the comb layers of the nest are supported by pillars and not connected with the envelope (T-B); see poecilocyttares and phragmocyttares.

stelocyttarous, pertaining to nests, and especially wasp nests (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), in which the combs are attached to the support by pillars (Wilson).

stenopterous, having narrowed, but complete, wings, e.g., in Thysanoptera and Mymaridae (Hymenoptera) (T-B).

Stephanoidea, superfamily within the Apocrita (Hymenoptera) including the family Stephanidae, possessing adults with a subantennal groove for reception of basal articles of antenna, spurs of hind tibia not modified for preening, petiolate gaster, and antenna with more than 14 articles (Riek, in CSIRO; Gauld and Bolton).

sterile caste, in Isoptera, the soldier and the worker caste, in which the sexual organs are atrophied and nonfunctional (Krishna, pers. comm.).

sternal apodeme, in adult Hymenoptera, anterodorsal apodeme of a sternum (Tuxen).

sternaulus (pl., sternauli), in some adult Ichneumonoidea (Hymenoptera), a furrow on either side of the sternopleuron in the position of a sternopleural suture (T-B; Riek, in CSIRO).

sternorhabdite, in larval Hymenoptera, structure or tubercle giving rise to part of ovipositor (T-B); in Odonata, style, q.v. (Tuxen, after Tillyard); in Blattopteroidea, valvulae inferiores, q.v. (Tuxen, after Lacaze-Duthiers).

stigma vein, in adult Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera), stigmal vein, q.v. (T-B).

stigmal vein, in adult Chalcidoidea and Scelionidae (Hymenoptera: Apocrita), a short vein extending posteriorly from the marginal vein of the wing, usually a little beyond the middle of the wing (Riek, in CSIRO; Borror et al.; Gauld and Bolton); see postmarginal vein.

sting, in Aculeata (Hymenoptera), modified ovipositor, used in defense, hunting, and aggression (Tuxen).

sting barb, in Apocrita (Hymenoptera), subdivisions on (usually) gonapophyses VIII (Tuxen, after E. L. Smith).

sting bulb, in Hymenoptera, bulb of sting, q.v. (Tuxen).

sting palp, in Hymenoptera, gonoplac, q.v. (Tuxen).

sting sheath, in Hymenoptera, gonoplac, q.v. (Tuxen).

stingless bee, a bee belonging to the subfamily Meliponinae (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (Wilson; Eickwort, pers. comm.).

stipa, in Hymenoptera, parapenial lobe, q.v. (Tuxen, after Radoszkowski).

stipes (pl., stipites), the basic sclerite of the maxilla, immediately distad to the cardo and bearing the galea, lacinia, and maxillary palpus, articulating partly with the head, partly to the cardo (T-B; Peterson; Harbach and Knight; Chapman); in Protura, basal, unpaired part of phallus to which the paired styli are articulated (Tuxen, after Berlese); in Protura, supposed (nonexistent) basal part of acrogynium (Tuxen, after Berlese); in Hymenoptera, gonoforceps, q.v. (Tuxen, after Boulangé), parapenial lobe, q.v. (Tuxen, after Hagens), gonocoxites + gonostyli + volsellae (Tuxen, after Kluge), gonocoxites + gonostyli (Tuxen, after Morice), or gonocoxites, q.v. (Tuxen, after Thomson).

stipital sclerite, in larval Ichneumonoidea (Hymenoptera), sclerotic rod that supports the maxilla ventrally (Gauld and Bolton).

stone brood, a disease of larval and adult honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), caused by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and, less frequently, Aspergillus fumigatus, in which diseased larvae usually die in the sealed stage, before pupation (Steinhaus and Martignoni).

storage pot, container of soft cerumen used for the storage of food in the nests of social bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), some of the pots constructed by the Meliponinae containing only honey (honey pot) and others only pollen (pollen pot) (Wilson).

straight run, the middle run made by a honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) worker during the waggle dance and the element that contains most of the symbolic information concerning the location of the target outside the hive (Wilson).

strigil, strigile, strigilis, scraper, q.v. (T-B); antennal cleaner, q.v. (T-B); in Corixidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), the peculiar structure on abdominal dorsum VI, sometimes shaped like a currycomb (T-B); in adult Lepidoptera, epiphysis, q.v. (Chapman); in adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), a curved, comblike, moveable spur on the distal end of foretibia (T-B, after Comstock; Gauld and Bolton).

strigilator, any of various myrmecophiles or termitophiles that feed by licking the surface of the bodies of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), or termites (Isoptera), with which they live. e.g., the wingless cricket Myrmecophila (Orthoptera: Myrmecophilidae) (T-B, after W. M. Wheeler).

strophandrous copulation, in Tenthredinoidea and some Xyelidae (Hymenoptera), entire genitalia rotated 180° permitting copulation end-to-end (Tuxen, after Crampton); see orthandrous copulation.

stylet(s), a small style or stiff process (T-B); a needlelike structure (Borror et al.); in Plecoptera, accessory, lateral, sclerotic processes of supraanal lobe (Tuxen); in Thysanoptera, Hemiptera, Anoplura (Phthiraptera), and some Diptera, one or more of the mouthparts modified for piercing and/or sucking and/or injection of saliva (T-B; Chapman); in Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera), first gonapophyses, q.v. (Tuxen); in Coleoptera, styli, q.v. (Tuxen); in Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera), uncus or tegumen + uncus (Tuxen, after Rambur); in Aculeata (Hymenoptera), the fused portions of second gonapophyses (Tuxen, after Snodgrass) (see sting).

stylet sheath, in many plant-feeding Hemiptera, a more or less permanent duct, surrounding the mouthparts between the plant surface and the phloem, composed of tanned lipoprotein derived from the saliva (Gilmour, in CSIRO); in Aculeata (Hymenoptera), third valvulae, q.v. (T-B, after Imms).

styliger, in Ephemeroptera, united coxites of forceps of abdominal sternum IX (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in Isoptera, basal structure of abdominal sternum IX bearing styli (Tuxen, after Crampton).

stylus (pl., styli), a small, pointed, nonarticulated process (T-B); distal part of gonopod, moveably attached to basal segment of gonopod (coxopodite) or to abdominal sternum (T-B, after Imms; Tuxen; Chapman); in Protura, the distal paired part of phallus consisting of basistylus and acrostylus Tuxen); in Protura, distal part of squama genitalis (Tuxen); in many Archaeognatha, coxal stylets, q.v. (Sturm, pers. comm., after Janetschek); in Ephemeroptera, genostyles, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton); in Odonata, styles, q.v. (Tuxen, after Walker); in Blattopteroidea, apophyses internae, q.v. (Tuxen, after Berlese); in Coccoidea (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), penis sheath, q.v. (Tuxen); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), parameres, q.v. (Tuxen, after Seidenstücker); in Neoneuromus (Megaloptera), catoprocessus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Acker); in Sisyra (Sisyridae) and Dilara (Dilaridae) (Planipennia), entoprocessus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Acker); in Psychopsidae and Hemerobiidae (Planipennia), arcessus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Acker); in Diptera, dististylus, q.v., (in Muscomorpha) surstyli, q.v. (Tuxen), or paraphallus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Rohdendorf); in adult Diptera, e.g., Stratiomyidae, the last flagellomere of antenna (T-B; McAlpine) (see arista); in Chironomidae (Diptera), gonostylus, q.v. (Saether); in Siphonaptera, telomere, q.v. (Tuxen); in Hymenoptera, genostylus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Berlese); see style and stylet.

subalar area, in adult Hymenoptera, subalar prominence, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

subalar pit, in some adult Hymenoptera, an impression behind the slightly below subalar prominence (Gauld and Bolton).

subalar prominence, in some adult Hymenoptera, complexly raised portion of mesepisternum below the wing insertion (Gauld and Bolton).

subanal appendages, structures of the caudal segment located below the anus (Peterson); in larval Megalodontoidea (Hymenoptera: Symphyta), paired segmented structures, located ventral to the lateral ends of the anal slit (Gauld and Bolton).

subanal lobe(s), in Plecoptera, subanal plates, q.v. (Tuxen, after Needham and Claassen); in larval Symphyta (Hymenoptera), membranous lobe of abdominal segment X below the anus (Gauld and Bolton); see suranal lobe.

subanal plates, in Plecoptera, a pair of sclerotized plates behind abdominal sternum X (if this is present) (Tuxen); in Plecoptera, a pair of large plates behind sternum X (if this is present) (Tuxen); in Isoptera, paraprocts, q.v. (Tuxen, after Fuller); in Hepialidae (Lepidoptera), central, ventral, paired sclerites of genital region (transl. "plaques sous-anales" Bourgogne, in Tuxen).

subanal styli, in Isoptera, styli, q.v. (Tuxen).

subcosta (Sc), the second, usually unbranched, longitudinal wing vein posterior to the costa, articulating basally with the first axillary sclerite (T-B, after Comstock; Chapman); in Hymenoptera, radius, q.v. (T-B, after Packard); see subcostal vein.

subdiscal vein, in adult Hymenoptera, vein forming the posterior margin the third discoidal cell, i.e., first branch of anterior cubitus (CuA) (Riek, in CSIRO; Borror et al.).

subgenital plate, in Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera), genital plates, q.v. (Tuxen); in Psyllidae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha), abdominal sternum IX (Tuxen, after Stough); in Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), abdominal sternum IX (Tuxen); in Aphididae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), genital plate, q.v. (Tuxen); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), any or abdominal sternum (usually VII, in Enicocephalidae VIII), or a specialized part of it, produced caudad to cover genital segments, genitalia, or genital opening (Stys, pers. comm.); in Miridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), inferior process, q.v. (Tuxen, after Carvalho and Southwood); in Neuropteroidea, abdominal sternum IX, q.v. (Tuxen, after Morton); in Coniopterygidae (Planipennia), hypandrium, q.v. (Tuxen, after Withycombe); in Neuronema and Hemerobius (Planipennia: Hemerobiidae), postgenitale, q.v. (Tuxen, after Tjeder); in Boreus (Mecoptera: Boreidae), abdominal sternum IX (Tuxen); in Mecoptera, subgenitale, q.v. (Tuxen, after Carpenter), separate or fused sclerotized posterior extensions of abdominal sternum VIII (Byers); in Tipulidae (Diptera), hypogynium, q.v. (McAlpine); in Hydroptilidae (Trichptera), sclerotized oval or U-shaped structure ventrad of phallus, q.v. (Kelley); in Lepidoptera, lamella antevaginalis, q.v. (transl. "subgenitalplatte" Klapálek, in Tuxen); in Hymenoptera, abdominal sternum IX (Tuxen, after Dreisbach); in Hymenoptera, abdominal sternum VII (Tuxen).

sublingual gland, in the honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae), ventral pharyngeal gland, q.v. (T-B, after Bordas).

submarginal cell, in adult Hymenoptera, one or more cells of the wing lying immediately behind the marginal cells (Borror et al.).

submarginal vein, in adult Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera), a vein immediately behind and paralleling the costal margin of the wing (T-B, after Comstock; Riek, in CSIRO; Borror et al.); see marginal vein and postmarginal vein.

submedian cell, in adult Hymenoptera, cell immediately posterior to fused media (M) and cubitus anterior (CuA), in the basal posterior portion of the wing (Borror et al.; Riek, in CSIRO).

subocular sulcus, in certain Orthoptera, a groove extending from the circumocular sulcus to the subgenal sulcus beneath the compound eye (Chapman, after Snodgrass); in adult Hymenoptera, malar sulcus, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton); see frontogenal suture.

substitute king, in Isoptera, supplementary reproductive, q.v. (T-B, after Comstock).

substitute queen, in Isoptera, supplementary reproductive, q.v. (T-B, after Comstock).

substrate, a substance which is acted on by an enzyme (T-B); the material such as fecal matter or leaf parts upon which certain ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) raise fungi (T-B).

supersedure, in honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the replacement of the resident queen, usually an old and sickly individual, with a new queen reared by the workers, a process distinct from colony multiplication by swarming (Wilson).

supplementary reproductive, in Isoptera, an individual, nymphoid or ergatoid, q.v., apterous neotenic or brachypterous neotenic, which becomes a functional reproductive in the colony of its origin without reaching the imago or alate form and without leaving the parent colony, sometimes replacing, sometimes supplementing a primary reproductive (king or queen); also includes adultoids (Krishna, pers. comm.).

supporting plate, in Hymenoptera, gonangulum, q.v. (Tuxen, after Imms).

supraalar groove, in adult Diptera, supraalar depression, q.v. (T-B, after Comstock; Harbach and Knight); in adult Hymenoptera, a groove or depression just above the bases of the wing (T-B, after J. B. Smith).

supraanal plate, in Ephemeroptera, epiproct, q.v. (Tuxen); in Blattopteroidea, abdominal tergum X (Tuxen); in Isoptera, epiproct, q.v. (Tuxen); in Grylloblattodea, epiproct, q.v. (Tuxen); in Orthoptera, epiproct or tergiproct, q.v., or part thereof (Tuxen, after Walker); in Dermaptera, penultimate sternite, q.v. (Tuxen); in Plecoptera, epiproct, q.v. (Tuxen; Zwick, pers. comm.); in Psyllidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), proctiger, q.v. (Tuxen); in Tachardiidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea), sclerotized area laterad of anal opening but not forming an operculum (Miller, in Stehr); in Nymphes (Planipennia: Nymphidae), mediuncus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton); in Diptera, dorsal plate of proctiger (Tuxen, after Crampton).

supracerebral glands, the pair of salivary glands situated above the brain in bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) (T-B).

supraclypeal area, in adult Hymenoptera, the region of the head between the antennal sockets, the clypeus and the frontal crest (T-B).

supraclypeal mark, in adult bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), a patch of light color above the clypeus (T-B).

supraneural bridge, in the honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the fused endosternites (T-B).

suprascutella, in adult Hymenoptera, postscutellum, q.v. (T-B, after MacGillivray).

suranal plate, in adult Ephemeroptera and Isoptera, epiproct, q.v. (Tuxen); in Plecoptera, epiproct, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton); in Orthoptera, supraanal plate, q.v. (T-B); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), anal tube, q.v. (Tuxen, after Matsuda); in larval Lepidoptera, anal plate, q.v. (T-B); in Ceratocampini (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), tegumen + uncus (Tuxen, after Packard).

suranal process, a sclerotized process on the meson of the suranal lobe (Peterson); in larval Symphyta (Hymenoptera), postcornu, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

suspensor, the column or partition of carton or wax attaching strata of comb in the nests of bees and wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) (Tulloch, after Gaul).

swarming, in honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), the normal method of colony reproduction in which the queen and a large number of workers depart suddenly from the parental nest and fly to some exposed site, where they cluster while scout workers fly in search of a suitable new nest cavity (T-B; Wilson); in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), the mass exodus of winged reproductive forms from the nests during the nuptial flight (Wilson); in many Nematocera (Diptera) and Enicocephalidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), aggregating in a mating swarm, q.v.

symbiogenesis, the method of origin of social symbiotic relation among ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and other insects (T-B).

symphily, the relation borne to ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) by the true guests which inhabit their nests and are fed and tended; rendering in return some substance or service desired by the ants (T-B); see metochy and synecthry.

Symphyta, suborder within the Hymenoptera, including sawflies and horntails of the superfamilies Xyeloidea, Mealodontoidea, Tenthredinoidea, Siricoidea, Orussoidea and Ceproidea, possessing adults with abdomen broadly sessile at its base and without a marked constriction, even when hinged, between segments I and II, and thorax with 2 pairs of spiracles, neither visible dorsally; larvae more or less eruciform (Riek, in CSIRO; Gauld and Bolton).

syndiacony, the relationship between ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and plants (such as fungi) wherein both obtain some benefit from the other (Tulloch, after Forel).

synecthry, the relation borne to ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) by insects inhabiting their nests in spite of the efforts of the ants to destroy them (T-B); see symphily and metochy.

synsternite, in many adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), fused gastral sternites (Gauld and Bolton).

syntergite, in many adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), fused gastral tergites (Gauld and Bolton).

tandem running, in certain ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) species, a form of communication, used by the workers during exploration or recruitment, in which one individual follows closely behind another, frequently contacting the abdomen of the leader with its antennae (Wilson).

tangium, in Hymenoptera, ventral ramus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Ross).

tapinoma-odor, the peculiar rancid butter smell of some Dolichoderinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), produced by a secretion from anal glands (T-B, after W. M. Wheeler).

tegula (pl., tegulae), a sclerite carried at the extreme base of the costa of the forewing, being very large and overlapping the wing base in Lepidoptera and also well-developed in Hymenoptera and Diptera (T-B, after Imms; McAlpine); in adult Diptera, alula, q.v. (T-B, after Comstock); in Orthoptera, cingulum, q.v. (Tuxen); see humeral plate and patagium.

teleaform larva, in Hymenoptera with a hypermetamorphosis (e.g., Proctotrupoidea), a larva which resembles the first-instar larva of Teleas (Scelionidae), with prominently hooked or curved, ventrally-directed, cephalic protuberances, and having one or more girdles of setae about the abdomen (T-B, after Imms; Gauld and Bolton).

Telomerida, hypothesized monophyletic group including the Hymenoptera, Neuropteroidea, and Panorpoidea (Boudreaux).

temple, the part of the head above and behind the compound eyes; in some adult Odonata, postocular lobe (O'Farrell, in CSIRO); in adult Hymenoptera, upper part of gena (Gauld and Bolton).

temporal orbit, in adult Hymenoptera, genal orbit, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

tenaculum, in Collembola, a minute organ with 2 divergent prongs, situated medially on the ventral surface of the third abdominal segment, serving to hold the furcula in place (T-B; Borror et al.); in Hymenoptera, gonostylus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Radoszkowski).

Tenthredinoidea, superfamily within the Symphyta (Hymenoptera), including the Tenthredinidae, Parsidae, Argidae, Blasticotomidae, Cimbicidae, and Diprionidae, possessing adults with narrow, emarginate pronotum, foretibia with 2 apical spurs, forewing lacking intercostal vein, second radial crossvein of forewing distal to second radiomedial crossvein, and base of parameres absent (Gauld and Bolton, after Königsmann; Schauff, pers. comm.).

tentorial foveae, in adult Hymenoptera, anterior tentorial pits, q.v. (T-B).

teratogyne, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), an aberrant form of present in a colony either as the only form or coexisting with other females, i.e., with normal or with alpha-females; originally designated as beta-females by Wheeler (Tulloch).

terebra (pl., terebrae), a borer or piercer (T-B); a mandibular sclerite articulated to the basalis, forming the point of the structure and equivalent to the galea of the maxilla (T-B); in Odonata, the combined anterior and median gonapophyses (Tuxen, after Tillyard); in Cordulegasteridae (Odonata), the enormously hypertrophied anterior gonapophyses (Tuxen, after authors); in Psocoptera, lamina subgenitalis, q.v. (Tuxen, after Kolbe); in Terebrantia (Thysanoptera), ovipositor, q.v. (Tuxen); in Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera), sawlike ovipositor, q.v. (Tuxen).

terebrant Hymenoptera, members of the Apocrita (Hymenoptera), having an ovipositor for piercing or boring, rather than a sting (Riek, in CSIRO); see aculeate.

Terebrantes, terebrant Hymenoptera, q.v. (Leftwich); see aculeate Hymenoptera.

Terebrantia, suborder of Thysanoptera, including the Thripidae, Aeolothripidae, Merothripidae, Heterothripidae, Adiheterothripidae, Fauriellidae and Uzelothripidae possessing females with sawlike ovipositor and apex of abdomen conical, males with apex of abdomen rounded, and wings carried side by side along the dorsum when at rest (Mound et al.); terebrant Hymenoptera, q.v. (T-B).

termitarium (pl., termitaria), a nest, natural or artificial, or a colony, of termites (Isoptera) (T-B).

termite, a member of the order Isoptera (T-B; Gay, in CSIRO).

termitiform, resembling a termite (Isoptera) (Peterson).

termitology, the study of termites (Isoptera) (Wilson).

termitophile, a termite (Isoptera) insect guest, of another order (T-B, after Comstock); inquiline in the nest of termites (Isoptera) (Leftwich); an organism that must spend at least part of its life cycle with termite (Isoptera) colonies (Wilson).

termitophilous, termite (Isoptera) loving; applied to the insect and other guests habitually living in a termite colony with and among the termites (T-B).

tertiary reproductive, in termites (Isoptera), ergatoid reproductive, q.v. (Wilson).

third-form reproductive, in Isoptera, ergatoid reproductive, q.v. (E. M. Miller).

third gonapophyses, in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), gonoplacs, q.v. (Tuxen, after Davis); in Phymatidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), ? gonocoxites IX (Tuxen, after Davis); in Hymenoptera, gonobase + gonocoxites + gonostyli (Tuxen, after Rohwer).

third submarginal cross-nervure, in adult Hymenoptera, third radiomedial crossvein (T-B, after Norton).

third valves, in Isoptera, dorsal valves, q.v. (Tuxen).

third valvulae, in insects, gonoplacs, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in Odonata, lateral gonapophyses, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in Blattopteroidea, valvulae superiores, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in Isoptera, dorsal valves, q.v. (Tuxen); in Orthoptera, posterior valvulae, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in Psocoptera, valvae externae, q.v. (Tuxen, after Broadhead); in Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera), saw-case, q.v. (Tuxen, after Fennah); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), gonoplacs, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass); in Hymenoptera, gonoplacs, q.v. (Tuxen, after Michener).

thoracic salivary gland, in the honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae), labial gland, q.v. (T-B, after Imms).

thylactium, an external galllike cyst in the abdomen of the host, containing the parasitic larva of Dryinidae (Hymenoptera) (T-B; Riek, in CSIRO).

thyridium (pl., thyridia), in some adult Neuropteroidea, small, whitish, or almost transparent spots near the anastomosis of the disc of the wings (T-B); in adult Trichoptera, a hyaline spot on the first fork of the median vein (T-B); in adult Ichneumonidae and some Aculeata (Hymenoptera), a differently sculptured, elliptical or more or less oval, area located anteriorly on abdominal tergite III, and sometimes on abdominal tergite IV (T-B; Gauld and Bolton).

tibial spur formula, in Isoptera, a formula expressing the number of tibial spurs present in the fore- mid- and hind tibia, respectively, expressed as 3:3:3; 3:2:2, and so forth (Krishna, pers. comm.).

Tiphioidea, superfamily within the Aculeata (Hymenoptera), including the Tiphiidae, Sapygidae, Mutillidae, Sierolomorphidae, and Bradynobaenidae (Gauld and Bolton, after Brown); included within the Vespoidea (sensu Gauld and Bolton, after Brothers).

tongue, hypopharynx, q.v., or proboscis, q.v. (T-B; Leftwich); in adult Hymenoptera, glossa, q.v. (T-B); in Heteroptera (Hemiptera), inferior process, q.v. (Tuxen, after Schaefer).

topochemical sense, the perception of scents along a path or on either side of it, enabling ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), or other insects to follow a track previously used by themselves or by other insects and to return to it (Leftwich).

totaglossa, ligula, q.v., consisting of the fused glossae and paraglossae without a line of division (T-B, after MacGillivray); in larval Symphyta (Hymenoptera), median terminal lobe, q.v. (Gauld and Bolton).

tractium, in Hymenoptera, ventral ramus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Ross).

trail pheromone, a substance laid down in the form of a trail by one animal and followed by another member of the same species, e.g. termites (Isoptera) and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (Wilson; Chapman).

transscutal articulation, in some adult Symphyta and Chalcididae (Hymenoptera), transverse line of flexibility between the forewing bases that subdivides the mesoscutum (Gibson; Gauld and Bolton); see axilla.

transscutal suture, the transverse suture dividing the scutum into an anterior and a posterior region (T-B, after Crampton); in certain Hymenoptera, transcutal articulation, q.v. (T-B, after Snodgrass).

transverse marginal vein, in adult Hymenoptera, radial crossvein (r), q.v., posterior to distal end of pterostigma (Borror et al.).

transverse median vein, in adult Hymenoptera, a crossvein between the discoidal vein and the anal vein (Borror et al.).

transverse radial vein, in adult Hymenoptera, transverse marginal vein, q.v. (Borror et al.).

trap-nesting, providing artificial nesting sites in the field, especially for bees and wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) (Gauld and Bolton).

triangular plate, in Apoidea (Hymenoptera), gonangulum, q.v. (Tuxen, after Snodgrass).

trichomes, modified hairs present on certain myrmecophilous insects which give off secretions that ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) imbibe, e.g., base of abdomen in Holoptilinae (Heteroptera: Reduviidae); adult Paussini (Coleoptera: Carabidae); on elytra of Chlamydopsis (Coleoptera: Histeridae); and base of abdomen of adult Clavigerinae (Pselaphidae) (Tulloch; Woodward et al., Britton, in CSIRO).

Trigonaloidea, superfamily within the Apocrita (Hymenoptera), including the family Trigonalidae, adults having antennae with more than 16 articles, closed basal cells in hind wing, forewing with a distinct costal cell, pronotum without a dorsal surface in median area and not reaching back above tegulae, pronotum with pronotal lobe reaching back to tegula, margined with close fine hairs, no antennal groove; and spurs of hind tibia not modified for preening (Riek, in CSIRO; Schauff, pers. comm.).

trimorphism, the phenomenon of having 3 forms in color or structure in one and the same species; or, in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and termites (Isoptera), in one and the same worker caste (T-B).

triphasic allometry, polymorphism in which the allometric regression line, when plotted on a double logrithmic scale, "breaks" at 2 points and consists of 3 segments; in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), the 2 terminal segments usually have slight to moderately high slopes and the middle segment has a very high slope (Wilson).

trochantellus, in some adult Apocrita (Hymenoptera), proximal end of femur, appearing as an apparent second segment of the trochanter (Riek, in CSIRO; Gauld and Bolton).

trochanterellus, in adult Hymenoptera, trochanter, q.v. (T-B).

trophamnion, in parasitic insects with polyembryony, e.g., parasitic Hymenoptera, cytoplasm of the egg associated with the paranuclear mass that surrounds the embryonic region and serves in passing nutriment from the host to the embryo (T-B, after Imms; Chapman).

trophidium, first larval stage of Pseudomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (Tulloch).

trophobiosis, the relationship in which ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) receive honeydew from members of the Auchenorrhyncha and Sternorrhyncha (Hemiptera) or certain caterpillars (Lepidoptera) and provide these insects with protection in return (Wilson).

trophothylax, in Pseudomyrmecinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a food pocket in abdominal segment I of the larva (T-B; Leftwich).

trunk, thorax, q.v. (T-B); the combined thorax and abdomen, e.g., Collembola (T-B; Christiansen and Bellinger); in Aculeata (Hymenoptera), alitrunk, q.v. (Brown, pers. comm.).

tubercle, a small knoblike or rounded protuberance (T-B; Borror et al.); in adult Sphecoidea (Hymenoptera), pronotal lobe, q.v. (T-B, after Rohwer); in caterpillars (Lepidoptera), body structures, sometimes bearing setae, e.g., pinaculum, verruca, q.v. (T-B; Peterson).

tyloid(s), in Trigonalidae and many Ichneumonidae and Braconidae (Hymenoptera), a large longitudinal keel or sensory patch on the ventral side of several flagellar segments (T-B; Riek, in CSIRO; Gauld and Bolton).

uncus (pl., unci), hook; barb (R. W. Brown); a hooklike process on the distal inner margin of the maxillary mala, perhaps a remnant of the lacinia, e.g., in larval Carpophilus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) (Peterson); in Blattopteroidea, right epiphallus (Tuxen, after Berlese); in Zoraptera, dorsocephalad directed lobe on abdominal terga X--XI (Tuxen, after Bolivar); in some Phthiraptera, lower endomere, q.v. (Tuxen); in Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera), anal hooks, q.v. (Tuxen); in Nymphes (Planipennia: Nymphidae), mediuncus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Crampton); in Lepidoptera, abdominal tergum X, middorsal structure, usually strongly sclerotized, extending caudad from the caudal margin of the tegumen (Tuxen, after Peytoureau), superuncus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Gosse), subscaphium, q.v. (Tuxen, after Rebel), tegumen + uncus (Tuxen, after Roepke), gnathos, q.v. (Tuxen, after Stitz), or (in Hesperiidae) stylet, q.v. (Tuxen, after Rambur); in Culicidae (Diptera), parts of parameres (Tuxen, after Howard, Dyar and Knab); in Hymenoptera, paramere, q.v. (Tuxen), penis, q.v. (Tuxen, after Franklin), or aedoeagus, q.v. (Tuxen, after Williams) or in most adult Chalcididae, hooked apex of stigmal vein (Gauld and Bolton); see unguis.

unisexual, of one sex only, e.g., some species of Aphididae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha), Curculionidae (Coleoptera), and Cynipidae (Hymenoptera), in which only parthenogenetic females are known (T-B; Borror et al.); see bisexual.

upper median area, in adult Hymenoptera, areola, q.v. (T-B).

urate cells, in the fat body of Collembola, Blattaria, and larval Apocrita (Hymenoptera), cells scattered among the trophocytes functioning in storage excretion of uric acid as urate crystals or granules (T-B, after Snodgrass; Chapman).


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